221 Coś niemożliwego do poczytania i do posłuchania… czyli jak brzmi „odtworzony” język tzw. PIE 02

Zapraszam na http://www.forum.jawia.pl.

I oto druga część artykułu, o tym jak odtworzono i wymówiono dźwięki tego tzw. PIE, czyli tego tzw. języka Proto-Indo-Europejskiego (Dobrze że już nie Indo-Germańskiego, jak to drzewiej bywało…) 🙂 Macie tu więcej wiadomości, jak i drugą bajkę „O Królu i Bogu”, napisaną w tym odtworzonym języku, czyli ciąg dalszy niemej germańskiej komedii „Hłokhłęjhgła ehłąhgworg khowkhaswos owejkbłos akswałs bkwes…” Miłego czytania i słuchania!

Hłahwejh yłohgbhe!!! (czyli hehehe… yhyhyhy w tzw. PIE) 🙂

To jest tak dobre, że postanowiłem kolejny wpis także poświęcić na pokazanie, jak dokładne i wiarygodne są „odtworzone brzmienia dźwięków”, tyle że tym razem uderzymy w klasykę gatunku… Trzymajcie się, bo będziecie trzęśli się albo ze zgrozy… albo ze śmiechu… co zresztą także jest zgrozą!!! 😉


Mowa jest srebrem, a milczenie złotem. Tu macie kolejne miałczenie owiec i kwakanie kłusaków i więcej, „odtworzone i wymówione” w tym tzw. PIE… 🙂

Hłahłejhwak waha waskas skłahk hailgitlahaput!!! 😉

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2437445/Ancient-language-called-PIE-heard-4-000-years-recorded-time.html

Ancient language not heard for 4,000 years is recorded for the first time as linguists work out how English came about using ancient texts

-Proto-Indo-European, or PIE, was spoken across Europe and Asia
-Believed to exist between 4,500 and 2,500 B.C
-Written example was created in Germany in 1868
-This is the first time an attempt at pronouncing it has been made

By CHRIS PLEASANCE PUBLISHED: 17:23, 29 September 2013

For the first time in four thousand years the ancient language called PIE can be heard thanks to decades of research. In a recording Dr Andrew Byrd, a linguistics expert from the University of Kentucky, reads the parable of the sheep and the horses in an ancient language called Proto-Indo-European, or PIE. Even though there is no written record of the language, Dr Byrd has managed to recreate an approximate version based on knowledge of ancient texts in Indo-European languages, such as Latin, Greek and Sanskrit.


The Kurgan hypothesis is the most likely explanation for how culture and language spread across early Europe and Asia

The language was last spoken between approximately 4,500 and 2,500 B.C by our ancestors from all over Europe and Asia.

The parable itself was actually written in 1868 by German linguist Dr. August Schleicher, who then translated the story into PIE as a way to experiment with the vocabulary, according to Archaeology magazine. There is no way to create a definitive version of the language and Byrd says his pronunciation is ‚a very educated approximation.’

Audio source Soudcloud Archaeology

Fdefg Fgdfg says at 0:12:
Disastrous accent. Let the people of India or Lithuanian spoke this INDO language please so-called „experts”. Indo-europeans (pre-3000 bc) are not Anglo-Saxons …

Arnold Warchal says at 0:40:
yes, of course the proto-indo-europeans sounded like old english, ha ha ha…

The parable of sheep and horses as it appears when translated into PIE, an ancient language which helped create English

Speaking to Huffington Post, he said: ‚Languages differ on how they pattern their sounds together, and they use those sounds to create new words. Proto-Indo-European is very guttural.’ Despite the interest in his recording, Byrd says that he has no intention to create any more, mostly because he would first have to create new stories as no written examples exist. Some of the many modern languages that stem from the Indo-European family include English, Swedish and Farsi. Byrd added: ‚Farsi and English were 6,500 years ago the same language. That’s pretty cool, and it kind of gives you a sense of unity.’ Because of the lack of available information, PIE is a debated topic among researchers. Byrd believes PIE was probably spoken on the Eurasian steppes around 6,500 years ago, but other researchers recently introduced a controversial new theory that it was spoken several thousand years earlier in Turkey. Sadly we will probably never know what PIE actually sounded like, and Byrd joked that the only way to create a definitive recording was to invent a time machine.

A TALE FOR PAST TIMES – THE PARABLE OF SHEEP AND HORSES IN FULL
The parable was actually written in German and translated into PIE

‚A sheep that had no wool saw horses, one of them pulling a heavy wagon, one carrying a big load, and one carrying a man quickly. The sheep said to the horses: „My heart pains me, seeing a man driving horses.” The horses said: „Listen, sheep, our hearts pain us when we see this: a man, the master, makes the wool of the sheep into a warm garment for himself. And the sheep has no wool.” Having heard this, the sheep fled into the plain.’

Abu_Nudnik, Toronto, 2 years ago
It sounds a bit too north European and not Indo enough for my taste. A bit too Gaelic, as someone pointed out.

Shieldwolfd, earth, Germany, 2 years ago
Excuse me, but I sense a wee bit of Gaelic and Netherland (Swede Nords) and Pic in it! Honest!!

Matthew, London – UK, 2 years ago
Sanskrit, the ancient language of India has been used to produce several other languages in Europe. Hence it is called Indo-European.

Marek Mazur, Kielce, Poland, 2 years ago
Apparently Lithuanian is the closest living relative of that ancient Indo-European language, also Slavic tongues still bear many of its features

gaisgeach, Paris, France, 2 years ago
Odd how the map stops in Eastern France. The Celtic descendents of PIE reached the British Isles around 4,000 years ago and their descendants of Welsh, Gaelge and Gaighlig are still spoken. English is, technically, not a language but a creole in that is has a grammatical base of German but a large French vocabulary although both are Indo-european. As an aside, lingua franca is the Latin for the French language although the Franks were German speakers and is now commonly used to describe English.

hades2, Reed City, United States, 2 years ago
There is no way to create a definitive version of the language. then how do you know it was spoken,no written examples exist !!! ????

Abu_Nudnik, Toronto, 2 years ago
You don’t know for sure. It’s an approximation.

Ioannis1, Winchester, United Kingdom, 2 years ago
What kind of hoax is this ? He is trying to convince us that Greek and Latin languages had this symphony of …chi as an ancestor !?!?! Sorry but I am not bying .

Jim, Omaha, 2 years ago
„Dr Byrd has managed to recreate an approximate version based on…” So, in fact, he has absolutely NO idea if what he’s made up has ANY similarity to Proto-Indo-European and this is basically some sort of stunt.

Jonathan Sydenham, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2 years ago
Jim, if you want to know a bit more about how these things work, try „The Unfolding of Language” by Guy Deutscher. Languages (and pronunciation) evolve according to principles that are fairly well understood, so it is quite possible to work backwards by applying the principles in reverse. Of course there is room for doubt and it is easy to make mistakes: hence „approximate version”. Dr Byrd is just being intellectually honest.

Parlanchina, Somewhere, United States, 2 years ago
This is an interesting idea, but as a linguist, it is important to note that any reconstruction of PIE is guesswork. Educated guesswork, but guesswork nonetheless. It’s like taking all of the members of your family and comparing their facial characteristics to try to figure out what your great great great great grandparents looked like.

…..

Czyli nadal my niemi germańscy językoznawcy wiemy nic, ale i tak pianę bijemy równo, bo nasi mocodawcy płacą nam za to i mamy dzięki temu właściwie nieograniczone fundusze i wsparcie, nie tak jak te wredne nic nie rozumiejące słowiańskie padalce, (jak ja)… które mają coś, czego my niestety nie mamy i za żadne skarby świata, kupić nie możemy, a mianowicie ZWYCZAJNE OD DZIECIĘCTWA ZROZUMIENIE SŁOWIAŃSKIEGO JĘZYKA! Pferdfluhte! 🙂

Czy myśleliście już kiedyś, jaki Za+S”C”yT spotkał Nas czytających, mówiących i myślących w Języku Słowiańskim?!! Przecież mogliśmy zostać urodzeni, jako potomkowie takich Schleicherów, czy innych Hitlerów!!! Mogliśmy urodzić się np. taką Angelą Merkel… brrr… tfój!!!

SŁAWA NASZYM SŁOWIAŃSKIM PRZODKOM I NASZEJ  PRASTAREJ SŁOWIAŃSKIEJ TRADYCJI, JĘZYKOWI I KULTURZE!!!

…..

http://www.archaeology.org/exclusives/articles/1302-proto-indo-european-schleichers-fable

Telling Tales in Proto-Indo-European

By ERIC A. POWELL

By the 19th century, linguists knew that all modern Indo-European languages descended from a single tongue. Called Proto-Indo-European, or PIE, it was spoken by a people who lived from roughly 4500 to 2500 B.C., and left no written texts. The question became, what did PIE sound like? In 1868, German linguist August Schleicher used reconstructed Proto-Indo-European vocabulary to create a fable in order to hear some approximation of PIE. Called “The Sheep and the Horses,” and also known today as Schleicher’s Fable, the short parable tells the story of a shorn sheep who encounters a group of unpleasant horses. As linguists have continued to discover more about PIE (and archaeologists have learned more about the Bronze Age cultures that would have spoken it), this sonic experiment continues and the fable is periodically updated to reflect the most current understanding of how this extinct language would have sounded when it was spoken some six thousand years ago. Since there is considerable disagreement among scholars about PIE, no one version can be considered definitive. Here, University of Kentucky linguist Andrew Byrd recites his version of the fable, as well as a second story, called „The King and the God,” using pronunciation informed by the latest insights into reconstructed PIE.

Schleicher originally rendered the fable like this:

Avis akvāsas ka
Avis, jasmin varnā na ā ast, dadarka akvams, tam, vāgham garum vaghantam, tam, bhāram magham, tam, manum āku bharantam. Avis akvabhjams ā vavakat: kard aghnutai mai vidanti manum akvams agantam. Akvāsas ā vavakant: krudhi avai, kard aghnutai vividvant-svas: manus patis varnām avisāms karnauti svabhjam gharmam vastram avibhjams ka varnā na asti. Tat kukruvants avis agram ā bhugat.

Here is the fable in English translation:

The Sheep and the Horses
[On a hill,] sheep that had no wool saw horses, one of them pulling a heavy wagon, one carrying a big load, and one carrying a man quickly. The sheep said to the horses: „My heart pains me, seeing a man driving horses.” The horses said: „Listen, sheep, our hearts pain us when we see this: a man, the master, makes the wool of the sheep into a warm garment for himself. And the sheep has no wool.” Having heard this, the sheep fled into the plain.

And here is the modern reconstruction recited by Andrew Byrd. It is based on recent work done by linguist H. Craig Melchert, and incorporates a number of sounds unknown at the time Schleicher first created the fable:

H2óu̯is h1éḱu̯ōs-kwe

h2áu̯ei̯ h1i̯osméi̯ h2u̯l̥h1náh2 né h1ést, só h1éḱu̯oms derḱt. só gwr̥hxúm u̯óǵhom u̯eǵhed; só méǵh2m̥ bhórom; só dhǵhémonm̥ h2ṓḱu bhered. h2óu̯is h1ékwoi̯bhi̯os u̯eu̯ked: “dhǵhémonm̥ spéḱi̯oh2 h1éḱu̯oms-kwe h2áǵeti, ḱḗr moi̯ aghnutor”. h1éḱu̯ōs tu u̯eu̯kond: “ḱludhí, h2ou̯ei̯! tód spéḱi̯omes, n̥sméi̯ aghnutór ḱḗr: dhǵhémō, pótis, sē h2áu̯i̯es h2u̯l̥h1náh2 gwhérmom u̯éstrom u̯ept, h2áu̯ibhi̯os tu h2u̯l̥h1náh2 né h1esti. tód ḱeḱluu̯ṓs h2óu̯is h2aǵróm bhuged.


(LACMA)This watercolor depicting the Hindu god Varuna riding a sea monster dates from A.D. 1675 to 1700.

In the 1990s, historical linguists created another short parable in reconstructed PIE. It is loosely based on a passage from the Rigveda, an ancient collection of Sanskrit hymns, in which a king beseeches the god Varuna to grant him a son. Here, Andrew Byrd recites his version of the “The King and the God” in PIE, based on the work of linguists Eric Hamp and the late Subhadra Kumar Sen.

copymanLE says at 0:03:
Interesting. It sounds like a scandinavian language, maybe for the strange accent, but there are some words that are familiar like pter (pater/father), leukos (white/bright >Greek) and deiuos (theos, deus)

Fdefg Fgdfg says at 0:03:
Disastrous accent. Let the people of India or Lithuanian spoke this INDO language please so-called „experts”. Indo-europeans (pre-3000 bc) are not Anglo-Saxons from 100 years of history/culture,Please!

Here is an English translation of the story:

The King and the God

Once there was a king. He was childless. The king wanted a son. He asked his priest: „May a son be born to me!” The priest said to the king: „Pray to the god Werunos.” The king approached the god Werunos to pray now to the god. „Hear me, father Werunos!” The god Werunos came down from heaven. „What do you want?” „I want a son.” „Let this be so,” said the bright god Werunos. The king’s lady bore a son.

And here is the story rendered in reconstructed Proto-Indo-European:

H3rḗḱs dei̯u̯ós-kwe

H3rḗḱs h1est; só n̥putlós. H3rḗḱs súhxnum u̯l̥nh1to. Tósi̯o ǵʰéu̯torm̥ prēḱst: „Súhxnus moi̯ ǵn̥h1i̯etōd!” Ǵʰéu̯tōr tom h3rḗǵm̥ u̯eu̯ked: „h1i̯áǵesu̯o dei̯u̯óm U̯érunom”. Úpo h3rḗḱs dei̯u̯óm U̯érunom sesole nú dei̯u̯óm h1i̯aǵeto. „ḱludʰí moi, pter U̯erune!” Dei̯u̯ós U̯érunos diu̯és km̥tá gʷah2t. „Kʷíd u̯ēlh1si?” „Súhxnum u̯ēlh1mi.” „Tód h1estu”, u̯éu̯ked leu̯kós dei̯u̯ós U̯érunos. Nu h3réḱs pótnih2 súhxnum ǵeǵonh1e.

…..

A teraz trochę wiadomości o wersjach tej germańskiej niemej farsy:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schleicher%27s_fable

Schleicher’s fable (avis akvāsas ka) is an artificial text composed in the reconstructed language Proto-Indo-European (PIE) published by August Schleicher in 1868. Schleicher was the first scholar to compose a text in PIE. The fable is entitled Avis akvāsas ka („The Sheep and the Horses”). At later dates, various scholars have published revised versions of Schleicher’s fable, as the idea of what PIE should look like has changed over time. The fable may serve as an illustration of the significant changes that the reconstructed language has gone through during the last 140 years of scholarly efforts.

The first revision of Schleicher’s fable was made by Hermann Hirt (published by Arntz in 1939). A second revision was published by Winfred Lehmann and Ladislav Zgusta in 1979.[1] Another version by Douglas Q. Adams appeared in the Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture (1997:501). In 2007 Frederik Kortlandt published yet another version on his homepage.[2]

The Sheep and the Horses by Schleicher (1868)

Avis akvāsas ka
Avis, jasmin varnā na ā ast, dadarka akvams, tam, vāgham garum vaghantam, tam, bhāram magham, tam, manum āku bharantam. Avis akvabhjams ā vavakat: kard aghnutai mai vidanti manum akvams agantam. Akvāsas ā vavakant: krudhi avai, kard aghnutai vividvant-svas: manus patis varnām avisāms karnauti svabhjam gharmam vastram avibhjams ka varnā na asti. Tat kukruvants avis agram ā bhugat.[3]

Schleicher’s German translation

[Das] schaf und [die] rosse
[Ein] schaf, [auf] welchem wolle nicht war (ein geschorenes schaf) sah rosse, das [einen] schweren wagen fahrend, das [eine] groſse last, das [einen] menschen schnell tragend. [Das] schaf sprach [zu den] rossen: [Das] herz wird beengt [in] mir (es thut mir herzlich leid), sehend [den] menschen [die] rosse treibend. [Die] rosse sprachen: Höre schaf, [das] herz wird beengt [in den] gesehen-habenden (es thut uns herzlich leid, da wir wissen): [der] mensch, [der] herr macht [die] wolle [der] schafe [zu einem] warmen kleide [für] sich und [den] schafen ist nicht wolle (die schafe aber haben keine wolle mehr, sie werden geschoren; es geht ihnen noch schlechter als den rossen). Dies gehört-habend bog (entwich) [das] schaf [auf das] feld (es machte sich aus dem staube).[3]

English translation

The Sheep and the Horses
[On a hill,] a sheep that had no wool saw horses, one of them pulling a heavy wagon, one carrying a big load, and one carrying a man quickly. The sheep said to the horses: „My heart pains me, seeing a man driving horses.” The horses said: „Listen, sheep, our hearts pain us when we see this: a man, the master, makes the wool of the sheep into a warm garment for himself. And the sheep has no wool.” Having heard this, the sheep fled into the plain.[4]

Hirt (1939)

Owis ek’wōses-kʷe
Owis, jesmin wьlənā ne ēst, dedork’e ek’wons, tom, woghom gʷьrum weghontm̥, tom, bhorom megam, tom, gh’ьmonm̥ ōk’u bherontm̥. Owis ek’womos ewьwekʷet: k’ērd aghnutai moi widontei gh’ьmonm̥ ek’wons ag’ontm̥. Ek’wōses ewьwekʷont: kl’udhi, owei!, k’ērd aghnutai vidontmos: gh’ьmo, potis, wьlənām owjôm kʷr̥neuti sebhoi ghʷermom westrom; owimos-kʷe wьlənā ne esti. Tod k’ek’ruwos owis ag’rom ebhuget.[5]

Lehmann and Zgusta (1979)

Owis eḱwōskʷe
Gʷərēi owis, kʷesjo wl̥hnā ne ēst, eḱwōns espeḱet, oinom ghe gʷr̥um woǵhom weǵhontm̥, oinomkʷe meǵam bhorom, oinomkʷe ǵhm̥enm̥ ōḱu bherontm̥. Owis nu eḱwobh(j)os (eḱwomos) ewewkʷet: „Ḱēr aghnutoi moi eḱwōns aǵontm̥ nerm̥ widn̥tei”. Eḱwōs tu ewewkʷont: „Ḱludhi, owei, ḱēr ghe aghnutoi n̥smei widn̥tbh(j)os (widn̥tmos): nēr, potis, owiōm r̥ wl̥hnām sebhi gʷhermom westrom kʷrn̥euti. Neǵhi owiōm wl̥hnā esti”. Tod ḱeḱluwōs owis aǵrom ebhuget.[6]

Danka (1986)

Owis ek’woi kʷe
Owis, jesmin wl̥nā ne ēst, dedork’e ek’wons woghom gʷr̥um weghontn̥s – bhorom meg’əm, monum ōk’u bherontn̥s. Owis ek’wobhos eweukʷet: K’erd aghnutai moi widn̥tei g’hm̥onm̥ ek’wons ag’ontm̥. Ek’woi eweukʷont: K’ludhi, owi, k’erd aghnutai dedr̥k’usbhos: monus potis wl̥nām owiōm temneti: sebhei ghʷermom westrom – owibhos kʷe wl̥nā ne esti. Tod k’ek’luwōs owis ag’rom ebhuget.[7]

Adams (1997)

H₂óu̯is h₁ék̂u̯ōs-kʷe
[Gʷr̥hₓḗi] h₂óu̯is, kʷési̯o u̯lh₂néh₄ ne (h₁é) est, h₁ék̂u̯ons spék̂et, h₁oinom ghe gʷr̥hₓúm u̯óĝhom u̯éĝhontm̥ h₁oinom-kʷe méĝhₐm bhórom, h₁oinom-kʷe ĝhménm̥ hₓṓk̂u bhérontm̥. h₂óu̯is tu h₁ek̂u̯oibh(i̯)os u̯eukʷét: ‚k̂ḗr hₐeghnutór moi h₁ék̂u̯ons hₐéĝontm̥ hₐnérm̥ u̯idn̥téi. h₁ék̂u̯ōs tu u̯eukʷónt: ‚k̂ludhí, h₂óu̯ei, k̂ḗr ghe hₐeghnutór n̥sméi u̯idn̥tbh(i̯)ós. hₐnḗr, pótis, h₂éu̯i̯om r̥ u̯l̥h₂néhₐm sebhi kʷr̥néuti nu gʷhérmom u̯éstrom néĝhi h₂éu̯i̯om u̯l̥h₂néhₐ h₁ésti.’ Tód k̂ek̂luu̯ṓs h₂óu̯is hₐéĝrom bhugét.[8]

Lühr (2008)[edit]

h₂ówis h₁ék’wōskʷe
h₂ówis, (H)jésmin h₂wlh₂néh₂ ne éh₁est, dedork’e (h₁)ék’wons, tóm, wóg’ʰom gʷérh₂um wég’ʰontm, tóm, bʰórom még’oh₂m, tóm, dʰg’ʰémonm h₂oHk’ú bʰérontm. h₂ówis (h₁)ék’wobʰos ewewkʷe(t): k’ḗrd h₂gʰnutoj moj widntéj dʰg’ʰmónm (h₁)ék’wons h₂ég’ontm. (h₁)ék’wōs ewewkʷ: k’ludʰí, h₂ówi! k’ḗrd h₂gʰnutoj widntbʰós: dʰg’ʰémō(n), pótis, h₂wlnéh₂m h₂ówjom kʷnewti sébʰoj gʷʰérmom wéstrom; h₂éwibʰoskʷe h₂wlh₂néh₂ né h₁esti. Tód k’ek’luwṓs h₂ówis h₂ég’rom ebʰuge(t).[9]

Voyles and Barrack (2009)

Owis eḱwōs kʷe
Owis, jāi wl̥nā ne eest, dedorḱe eḱwons, tom woǵʰom gʷr̥um weǵʰontm̥, tom bʰorom meǵm̥, tom ǵʰm̥onm̥ ōku bʰerontm̥. Owis eḱwobʰjos eweket: “Ḱerd angʰetai moi widontei ǵʰm̥onm̥ eḱwons aǵontm̥”. Eḱwos wewekur: “Ḱludʰe, owei! Ḱerd angʰetai widontbʰjos: ǵʰm̥on, potis, wl̥nam owijōm kʷr̥neti soi gʷʰermom westrom; owibʰjos kʷe wl̥nā ne esti”. Tod ḱeḱlōts owis aǵrom ebʰuget.[10]

Melchert (2009)

H₂ówis (h₁)ék̂wōs-kʷe
h₂áwej josméj h₂wl̥h₁náh₂ né h₁ést, só h₁ék̂woms derk̂t. só gʷr̥hₓúm wóĝhom wéĝhet; méĝh₂m̥ bhórom; só (dh)gĥémonm̥ h₂ṓk̂u bhéret. h₂ówis h₁ék̂wojbh(j)os wéwk(ʷ)et: (dh)ĝhémonm̥ spék̂joh₂ h₁ék̂ʷoms-kʷe h₂éĝeti, k̂ḗr moj aglmutór. h₁ék̂wōs tu wéwkʷont: k̂ludhí, h₂owei! tód spék̂jomes/n, n̥sméi aghnutór k̂ḗr: (dh)ĝhémō pótis sē h₂áwjōm h₂wl̥h₁nā́h₁ gʷhérmom wéstrom (h₁)wébht, h₂áwibh(j)os tu h₂wl̥h₁náh₂ né h₁ésti. tód k̂ek̂luwṓs h₂ówis h₂aĝróm bhugét.

Kortlandt (2007, revised 2010)

ʕʷeuis ʔiḱ:ueskʷ:e
ʕʷeuis i ʕueli nēʔst ʔeḱ:ums uēit:, t:o kʷ’rʕeum uoḱom uḱent:m, t:o mḱ’eʕm porom, t:o tḱmenm ʔoʔḱ:u prent:m. uēuk:t ʕʷeuis ʔiḱ:uos, ʕetḱo ʔme ḱ:ērt ʕnerm uit’ent:i ʔeḱ:ums ʕḱ’ent:m. ueuk:nt: ʔiḱ:ues, ḱ:luti ʕʷue, ʕetḱo nsme ḱ:ērt: uit’ent:i, ʕnēr p:ot:is ʕʷuiom ʕueli sue kʷermom uesti kʷ:rneut:i, ʕʷuēi kʷ:e ʕueli neʔsti. t:o ḱ:eḱ:luus ʕʷeuis pleʕnom pēuk’t.

After the separation of Anatolian and Tocharian:

ʕʷeuis ioi ʕulʔneʕ nēʔs ʔeḱuns ʔe uēi’d, tom ’gʷrʕeum uoǵom ueǵontm, tom m’ǵeʕm borom, tom dǵmenm ʔoʔḱu berontm. ʔe uēuk ʕʷeuis ʔeḱumus, ʕedǵo ʔmoi ḱēr’d ʕnerm ui’denti ʔeḱuns ʕe’ǵontm. ʔe ueukn’d ʔiḱues, ḱludi ʕʷuei, ʕedǵo nsmi ḱēr’d ui’denti, ʕnēr potis ʕʷuiom ʕulʔneʕm subi gʷermom uesti kʷrneuti, ʕʷuimus kʷe ʕulʔneʕ neʔsti. to’d ḱeḱluus ʕʷeuis pleʕnom bēu’g.[2][11]

Byrd (2013)

H₂óu̯is h₁éḱu̯ōs-kʷe
h₂áu̯ei̯ h₁i̯osméi̯ h₂u̯l̥h₁náh₂ né h₁ést, só h₁éḱu̯oms derḱt. só gʷr̥hₓúm u̯óǵʰom u̯eǵʰed; só méǵh₂m̥ bʰórom; só dʰǵʰémonm̥ h₂ṓḱu bʰered. h₂óu̯is h₁ékʷoi̯bʰi̯os u̯eu̯ked: “dʰǵʰémonm̥ spéḱi̯oh₂ h₁éḱu̯oms-kʷe h₂áǵeti, ḱḗr moi̯ agʰnutor”. h₁éḱu̯ōs tu u̯eu̯kond: “ḱludʰí, h₂ou̯ei̯! tód spéḱi̯omes, n̥sméi̯ agʰnutór ḱḗr: dʰǵʰémō, pótis, sē h₂áu̯i̯es h₂u̯l̥h₁náh₂ gʷʰérmom u̯éstrom u̯ept, h₂áu̯ibʰi̯os tu h₂u̯l̥h₁náh₂ né h₁esti. tód ḱeḱluu̯ṓs h₂óu̯is h₂aǵróm bʰuged.[12][13]

Notable differences

Some of the differences between the texts are just varying spelling conventions: w and , for example, are only different ways to indicate the same sound, a consonantal u. However, many other differences are to be explained by widely diverging views on the phonological and morphological systems of PIE.

Schleicher’s reconstruction assumed that the o/e vocalism was secondary, and his version of PIE is much more closely based on Sanskrit than modern reconstructions.

Hirt introduced the o/e vocalism, syllabic resonants, labiovelars and palatalized velars.

Lehmann and Zgusta introduced a few alternative lexemes (the relative pronoun kʷesjo; the word nēr ‚man’), and made some first steps into the direction of accepting laryngeals. Their text features an h (wl̥hnā) for what they seem to accept as a single laryngeal of PIE.

Adams was the first one to fully reflect the laryngeal theory in his version of the fable. Judging from the text, he seems to assume four different laryngeal phonemes. Consequently, Adam’s text does not show long ā anymore.

Kortlandt’s version is a radical deviation from the prior texts in a number of ways. First, he followed the glottalic theory, writing glottalic plosives with a following apostrophe (t’) and omitting aspirated voiced plosives. Second, he substitutes the abstract laryngeal signs with their supposed phonetic values: h1 = ʔ (glottal stop), h2 = ʕ (pharyngeal fricative), h3 = ʕʷ (pharyngeal fricative with lip rounding). Kortlandt also has a different opinion about ablaut grades in many verbal and nominal forms, compared to the other scholars.

In popular culture

PIE is used in a short dialogue between the human astronauts and an alien „Engineer” in Ridley Scott‚s movie Prometheus.[14] In an early scene, the android ‚David’ (played by Michael Fassbender) practices reciting Schleicher’s fable to the interactive computer, in preparation for first contact with the „Engineers”.[15][16]

See also

References

  1. Jump up^ EXCURSUS : Une fable en indo-européen [COMPARAISON 23]
  2. ^ Jump up to:a b Kortlandt F. (2007). „For Bernard Comrie”. Frederik Kortlandt: Other electronic publications. Leiden: Leiden University, Department of comparative linguistics: http://www.kortlandt.nl. pp. [243e]. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-05-27. Retrieved 2013-05-26.
  3. ^ Jump up to:a b Schleicher A., Eine fabel in indogermanischer Ursprache. // Beiträge zur vergleichenden Sprachforschung auf dem Gebiete der arischen, celtischen und slawischen Sprachen. Fünfter Band. — Berlin: Ferd. Dümmlers Verlagsbuchhandlung. Harrwitz und Gossmann, 1868. — VI, 506 s. — SS. 206—208.
  4. Jump up^ Beekes R. S. P., Comparative Indo-European Linguistics: An introduction. — 2nd ed. — Amsterdam; Philadelphia: John Benjamin’s Publishing Company, 2011. — xxiv, 415 p. — P. 287. — ISBN 9-02721-186-8, ISBN 978-9-02721-186-6.
  5. Jump up^ Hirt H., Die Hauptprobleme der indogermanischen Sprachwissenschaft. / Herausgegeben Und Bearbeitet Von Ahelmunt Arntz. — Halle/Saale: Max Niemeyer, 1939. — VII, 226 s. — (Sammlung kurzer Grammatiken germanischer Dialekte. B. Ergänzungsheft 4).
  6. Jump up^ Lehmann W. P., Zgusta L., Schleicher’s tale after a century. // Studies in diachronic, synchronic, and typological linguistics: Festschrift for Oswald Szemerényi on the occasion of his 65th birthday. / Ed. by Bela Brogyanyi; [contrib. by Olga Akhmanova … et al.]. — Amsterdam: John Benjamins B.V., 1979. — 2 dl.; XIV, 994 p. — PP. 455—466. — (Amsterdam studies in the theory and history of linguistic science. Series IV; Current Issues in Linguistic Theory, vol. 11. — ISSN 0304-0763). — ISBN 9-027235-04-X, ISBN 978-9-027235-04-6.
  7. Jump up^ Danka I. R., Od zaczątku wiedzy o języku do rekonstrukcji języka indoeuropejskiego. // Międzynarodowa komunikacja językowa : materiały konferencyjne — VI. / Red. Tadeusz Ejsmont; tł. streszczeń Halina Ejsmont; Uniwersytet Łódzki. Zrzeszenie Studentów Polskich, Studenckie Koło Naukowe Esperantystów UŁ. — Łódź: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego, 1986. — SS. 44—61. — S. 59. — ISBN 8-370162-05-3, ISBN 978-8-370162-05-4
  8. Jump up^ Adams D. Q., SCHLEICHER’S TALE. // Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. / Ed. by Mallory J. P., Adams D. Q. — London-Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, 1997. — XXXVII, 829 p. — PP. 500—503. — ISBN 1-884964-98-2, ISBN 978-1-884964-98-5.
  9. Jump up^ Lühr R. (2008-01-09). „Von Berthold Delbrück bis Ferdinand Sommer: Die Herausbildung der Indogermanistik in Jena”. Vortrag im Rahmen einer Ringvorlesung zur Geschichte der Altertumswissenschaften. Jena: Friedrich-Schiller-Universität: http://www.indogermanistik.uni-jena.de. pp. P. 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-05-27. Retrieved 2013-05-26.
  10. Jump up^ Voyles J. B., Barrack C., An Introduction To Proto-Indo-European And The Early Indo-European Languages. — Bloomington, IN: Slavica Publishers, 2009. — P. 31. — viii, 647 p. — ISBN 978-0-89357-342-3
  11. Jump up^ Kortlandt, Frederik. Schleicher’s fable. In Studies in Germanic, Indo-European and Indo-Uralic (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2010), 47-50.
  12. Jump up^ Sheep And Horses
  13. Jump up^ Is This How Our Ancestors Sounded? Linguist Recreates Proto-Indo-European Language (AUDIO) // The Huffington Post. — 09/28/2013 11:16.
  14. Jump up^ „Proto-Indo-European in Prometheus?”. Languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu. 2012-06-08. Retrieved 2013-03-12.
  15. Jump up^ Stu Holmes, The Linguistics of Prometheus — What David Says to the Engineer. // THE BIOSCOPIST. thebioscopist.com. — JUNE 20, 2012
  16. Jump up^ Quiles C., López-Menchero F., A Grammar Of Modern Indo-European: Language & Culture, Writing System & Phonology, Morphology And Syntax. Version 5.20 Prometheus (October 2012). — Prometheus ed. — Badajoz/Sevilla: Indo-European Language Association, 2012. — P. 8. — 546 p. — ISBN 1-4800-4976-X, ISBN 978-1-4800-4976-5

Bibliography

  • Arntz, Helmut (ed.), Hirt, Hermann: Die Hauptprobleme der indogermanischen Sprachwissenschaft. Niemeyer, Halle a.d. Saale 1939 (Sammlung kurzer Grammatiken germanischer Dialekte. B. Ergänzungsheft 4)
  • Kortlandt, Frederik. 2007. For Bernard Comrie.
  • Lehmann, W., and L. Zgusta. 1979. Schleicher’s tale after a century. In Festschrift for Oswald Szemerényi on the Occasion of his 65th Birthday, ed. B. Brogyanyi, 455–66. Amsterdam.
  • Lühr, Rosemarie Von Berthold Delbrück bis Ferdinand Sommer: Die Herausbildung der Indogermanistik in Jena
  • Mallory, J. P. and Adams, D. Q.: Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. London, 1997. S. 500ff.
  • Schleicher, August: Fabel in indogermanischer Ursprache. In: Beiträge zur vergleichenden Sprachforschung auf dem Gebiete der arischen, celtischen und slawischen Sprachen. 5/1868. Dümmler, Berlin, S. 206-208

External links

…..

A tu macie jeszcze więcej pompowiania tego niemego germańskiego odtworzonego „indogermanische”… Także nie dziwcie się, że nikt nic z tego nie chce zrozumieć… a no bo i po co? Tak jak jest, jest dobrze i takie językowe allo-allo Adolfy, będa broniły okopów tych swoich wilczych szańców do końca… bo za dużo mają do stracenia…

My tu nie jesteśmy od przekonywania niewiernych, bo tych i tak nic nie przekona. My tu jesteśmy od pokazywania, co można odkryć, posługując się rozumem nie skrępowanym przeciw-słowiańskimi uprzedzeniami i zwykłym przeciw-słowiańskim rasizmem… Oczywiści wiem, że i tak znajda się tacy co udadzą, że i tak nie rozumieja, skąd, co i dlaczego wzięło się… Stopniowo będziemy odkrywali coraz więcej i więcej tych ichnich „naukowych podstaw”, a te i ci co chcą i umieją samodzielnie myśleć, będą mogły / mogli wyciągnąć swoje wnioski…

„As PIE was conjectured to be spoken by a prehistoric society, no genuine sample texts are available, but since the 19th century modern scholars have made various attempts to compose example texts for purposes of illustration. These texts are educated guesses at best; Calvert Watkins in 1969 observes that in spite of its 150 years’ history, comparative linguistics is not in the position to reconstruct a single well-formed sentence in PIE. Because of this and other similar objections based on Pratishakyas, such texts are of limited use in getting an impression of what a coherent utterance in PIE might have sounded like.”

https://www.google.co.uk/search?q=paradygmat+d%C5%BAwi%C4%99kowy++PIE&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&gws_rd=cr&ei=vTklVr-jN4efggTGsZPADQ#q=Proto+indo+european

http://www.grsampson.net/q_pie.html

http://www.departments.bucknell.edu/linguistics/lectures/05lect22.html

http://www.utexas.edu/cola/centers/lrc/general/IE.html

http://io9.com/listen-to-what-our-ancestors-language-sounded-like-6-0-1403832049

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/09/28/proto-indo-european-language-ancestors_n_4005545.html

http://news.sciencemag.org/2015/02/sound-proto-indo-european

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