778 SKRBH 135 Shield / SHieLD, jako Target / TaRG+eT – Giermański Drag / DRaG i jego pierwotne Pra-Słowiańskie źródłosłowy i znaczenia, czyli tragiczne targnięcie się na najświętsze świętości ofitzjalnego jęsykosnaftzfa 06


A Grammar of Modern Indo-European, Second Edition By Carlos Quiles

…..

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winter%27s_law

Winter’s law, named after Werner Winter, who postulated it in 1978, is a proposed sound law  operating on Balto-Slavic short vowels /e/, */o/, */a/ (< PIE h₂e), */i/ and */u/ according to which they lengthen before unaspirated voiced stops, and that syllable gains rising, acute accent.

Compare;

  • PIE *sed- „to sit” (which also gave Latin sedeō, Sanskrit sīdati, Ancient Greek hézomai and English sit) > Proto-Balto-Slavic *sēstej (*sēd-tej) > Lithuanian sė́stiOCS sěsti (with regular *dt > *st dissimilation; OCS and Common Slavic yat /ě/ is a regular reflex of PIE/PBSl. */ē/).
  • PIE *h₂ebl- „apple” (that also gave English apple) > Proto-Balto-Slavic *ābl- > standard Lithuanian obuolỹs (accusative óbuolį) and also dialectal forms of óbuolas and Samogitian  óbulas, OCS ablъko, modern Serbian/Croatian jȁbuka, Slovene jábolko etc.

Winter’s law is supposed to show the difference between the reflexes of PIE */b/, */d/, */g/, */gʷ/ in Balto-Slavic (in front of which Winter’s law operates in closed syllable) and PIE */bʰ/, */dʰ/, */gʰ/, */gʷʰ/ (before which there is no effect of Winter’s law). That shows that in relative chronology, Winter’s law operated before PIE aspirated stops */bʰ/, */dʰ/, */gʰ/ merged with PIE plain voiced stops */b/, */d/, */g/ in Balto-Slavic.

Secondarily, Winter’s law is also supposed to show the difference between the reflexes of PIE *h₂e > */a/ and PIE */o/ which otherwise merged to */a/ in Balto-Slavic. When those vowels lengthen in accordance with Winter’s law, old */a/ (< PIE *h₂e) has lengthened into Balto-Slavic */ā/ (which later gave Lithuanian /o/, Latvian /ā/, OCS /a/), and old */o/ has lengthened into Balto-Slavic */ō/ (which later gave Lithuanian and Latvian uo, but OCS /a/). In later development, which represented Common Slavic innovation, the reflexes of Balto-Slavic */ā/ and */ō/ were merged, and they both result in OCS /a/. This also shows that Winter’s law operated prior to the common Balto-Slavic change */o/ > */a/.

The original formulation of Winter’s law stated that the vowels regularly lengthened in front of PIE voiced stops in all environments. As much as there were numerous examples that supported this formulation, there were also many counterexamples, such as OCS stogъ „stack” < PIE *stógos, OCS voda  „water” < PIE *wodṓr (collective noun formed from PIE *wódr̥). An adjustment of Winter’s law, with the conclusion that it operates only on closed syllables, was proposed by Matasović in 1994. Matasović’s revision of Winter’s law has been used in the Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben. Other variations of the blocking mechanism for Winter’s law have been proposed by Kortlandt, Shintani,  RasmussenDybo and Holst.


Criticism

Not all specialists in Balto-Slavic historical linguistics accept Winter’s law. A study of counterexamples led Patri (2006) to conclude that there is no law at all. According to him, exceptions to the law create a too heterogeneous and voluminous set of data to allow any phonological generalization.


See also

References

https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/14514756.pdf

Winter’s Law again in Accent Matters Author: Frederik Kortlandt


Wiecie już po co, to powyżej zamieściłem? Niekumatym niniejszym wyjaśniam:

Nie wierzcie we wszystko, co wmawiają Wam ofitzjalni jęsykosnaftzy,.. czy np. ja,.. ale wszystko sami sprawdzajcie! Miłej zabawy! 🙂


W tej części kończę z tym Szcz / S”C”… itp, brzmiącym podobnie jak Szczyt / S”C”yT,.. przynajmniej spróbuję to zrobić,.. bo zobaczymy jak wyjdzie… 🙂

A i pamiętajcie to tym, co napisałem w części pierwszej tego wpisu, a szczególnie o tzw. wtórnych ubezdźwięcznieniach, czyli wtórnej utracie dźwięczności, czyli wtórnej tzw. kentumizacji, czyli tzw. rough breathing, czyli pierwotności dźwięku zapisywanego znakiem S, patrz: S>H… choć nie tylko o tym…

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