R1a

http://discoveryourfamily.weebly.com/uploads/1/0/4/1/10415752/r1a-clades.pdf

https://www.geni.com/projects/tag/r1a
R-L664 (Y-DNA) R1a1->M17->M417->CTS4385->L664 R-L664 (Y-DNA)
R-L664 is subgroup of:
R1a-> M448(R1a1)-> M17(R1a1a)-> M417(R1a1a1)-> CTS4385-> L664
on the Y-DNA Tree.
It spans Sweden, Denmark, Belgium and England. It is an extremely rare haplogroup comprising less than 1% of the population of these countries. L664 originated in 3000 B.C. probably in Sweden and is associated with the corded ware” (pottery) culture along with domesticated horses, two wheeled chariots and the Indo-European language. It is closely related to but does not include Z283 (R1a1a1b1) and Z93 (R1a1a1b2). The group probably entered England after the age of the Romans.

http://www.isogg.org/wiki/BritainsDNA_haplogroup_nicknames

http://www.jfpalmen.nl/files/Wiik_Haplogroup_R1a.pdf
Kalevi Wiik February 2012
Haplogroup R1a Maps and Tables
Str. 69 Conclusion: About 25 per cent of these Finnish men have come from the west and about 75 per cent from the east and south.

http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperDownload.aspx?DOI=10.4236/aa.2012.21001
Haplogroup R1a as the Proto Indo-Europeans and the Legendary Aryans as Witnessed by the DNA of Their Current Descendants
Anatole A. Klyosov, Igor L. Rozhanskii

http://file.scirp.org/pdf/AA_2013051612554944.pdf
DNA Genealogy and Linguistics. Ancient Europe
Anatole A. Klyosov, Giancarlo T. Tomezzoli

http://file.scirp.org/pdf/AA20120200004_71596882.pdf
Re-Examining the “Out of Africa” Theory and the Origin of Europeoids (Caucasoids) in Light of DNA Genealogy
Anatole A. Klyosov, Igor L. Rozhanskii

http://dienekes.blogspot.co.uk/2014/03/major-new-article-on-deep-origins-of-y.html
Major new article on the deep origins of Y-haplogroup R1a (Underhill et al. 2014)

http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0041885
Pasture Names with Romance and Slavic Roots Facilitate Dissection of Y Chromosome Variation in an Exclusively German-Speaking Alpine Region

http://dienekes.blogspot.co.uk/2012/10/improved-phylogenetic-resolution-within.html
Improved phylogenetic resolution within Y-haplogroup R1a1

http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0041803
Y-Chromosome Analysis in Individuals Bearing the Basarab Name of the First Dynasty of Wallachian Kings

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajpa.22167/abstract
New Y-chromosome binary markers improve phylogenetic resolution within haplogroup R1a1†

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22968131
Contemporary paternal genetic landscape of Polish and German populations: from early medieval Slavic expansion to post-World War II resettlements.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17364156
Y-STR variation among Slavs: evidence for the Slavic homeland in the middle Dnieper basin.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15959808
Significant genetic differentiation between Poland and Germany follows present-day political borders, as revealed by Y-chromosome analysis.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16100752
Review of Croatian genetic heritage as revealed by mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosomal lineages.

http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0050794
Uniparental Markers of Contemporary Italian Population Reveals Details on Its Pre-Roman Heritage
!!!Two haplogroups were not found, even though markers defining these clades were tested: N3 and R1a1.!!!

http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0053731
Paleo-Balkan and Slavic Contributions to the Genetic Pool of Moldavians: Insights from the Y Chromosome

http://arxiv.org/abs/1310.3897
Y Chromosomes of 40% Chinese Are Descendants of Three Neolithic Super-grandfathers

!!!R’s in Han Chinese are mostly R1a1-M17. The separation events of R1 and R2, and R1a and R1b are estimated here at 19.9 and 14.8 kya, respectively. R1b roamed till the Atlantic coast, forming some of the non-Indo-European groups (e.g. Basque)!!!

http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/vaop/ncurrent/abs/ejhg201450a.html
The phylogenetic and geographic structure of Y-chromosome haplogroup R1a

http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2014/03/05/1316513111.abstract
Direct evidence for positive selection of skin, hair, and eye pigmentation in Europeans during the last 5,000 y

http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/vaop/ncurrent/fig_tab/ejhg201450ft.html
The phylogenetic and geographic structure of Y-chromosome haplogroup R1a

http://polishgenes.blogspot.co.uk/2014/03/the-story-of-r1a-academics-flounder-as.html
The story of R1a: the academics flounder as they edge closer to the truth

http://polishgenes.blogspot.com.au/2013/04/r1a-and-r1b-as-markers-of-proto-indo.html
R1a and R1b as markers of the Proto-Indo-European expansion: a review of ancient DNA evidence

Y-DNA haplogroup R1a is arguably the best candidate for a genetic signal of the Proto-Indo-Europeans, who are thought to have expanded across Eurasia during the Copper Age. It’s been characterized as such in several academic papers during the past 15 years, and the theory now looks more plausible than ever thanks to recent discoveries about its structure and phylogeography (for example, see here – http://polishgenes.blogspot.com.au/2013/01/new-r1a1a-tree.html and here – http://eurogenes.blogspot.com.au/2012/10/first-official-attempt-to-divide-r1a1.html). Moreover, it’s been found in numerous ancient remains supposedly belonging to early Indo-Europeans. R1a’s brother clade, R1b, has also been proposed as a marker of the Proto-Indo-European dispersals, mostly by hobby genetic genealogists on various online forums. Among other things, they argue that it shows a high correlation with the so called Centum Indo-European languages, and probably expanded rapidly across Europe at exactly the right time (ie. during and/or after the Copper Age). However, there are also several problems with this theory, such as the fact that R1b is the dominant Y-DNA haplogroup in one of Europe’s few non-Indo-European speaking groups, the Basques. (…)

April 20, 2013 at 1:03 AM Davidski said…
I don’t know how and when R1b first entered Europe, but it’s unlikely that it came from the steppe, because there’s not a single R1b in any of the ancient samples from Siberia, the Altai and western China, where R1a dominates. In any case, wherever it came from, it definitely expanded from Western Europe during the Copper Age with the Bell Beaker culture.

http://polishgenes.blogspot.com.au/2013/12/near-eastern-origin-of-ashkenazi-r1a.html
Near Eastern origin of Ashkenazi Levite R1a

http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2013/131217/ncomms3928/full/ncomms3928.html
Phylogenetic applications of whole Y-chromosome sequences and the Near Eastern origin of Ashkenazi Levites

http://kurdishdna.blogspot.co.uk/2014/03/underhill-et-al-2014.html
Underhill et al., 2014
Today, I just want to show the frequencies of the R1a subbranches in the tested regions of the latest Underhill publication http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=24667786. The Middle East shows the highest diversity when it comes to SNPs. The authors wrote that „phylogeographic data lead us to conclude that the initial episodes of R1a-M420 diversification occurred in the vicinity of Iran and Eastern Turkey”, which is basically Kurdistan and Iran.

Davidski March 31, 2014 at 4:13 PM
L664 is the result of the same star like expansion of M417 that also involved Z282 and Z93, which most likely started during the Copper Age from somewhere in Europe. So it’s not that young. Underhill thought that R1a came from the Indus Valley, and now he’s moved things to Iran. Eventually he’ll get it right, or someone else will.

http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/vaop/ncurrent/fig_tab/ejhg201450f1.html#figure-title
The phylogenetic and geographic structure of Y-chromosome haplogroup R1a

https://www.familytreedna.com/public/r1a/
R1a1a and Subclades Y-DNA Project- Background

https://www.familytreedna.com/public/r1a/default.aspx?section=results
R1a1a and Subclades Y-DNA Project – Results

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