Językoznawstwo

http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/J%C4%99zykoznawstwo
Językoznawstwo (lingwistyka) – dział nauk humanistycznych badających istotę, budowę i rozwój języka. Specjalista w zakresie językoznawstwa to językoznawca lub lingwista. Wyróżnia się lingwistykę teoretyczną i stosowaną.
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Historia językoznawstwa

Wczesne teksty indyjskich Wed wskazują na strukturę języków – język składa się ze zdań mających cztery stadia rozwojowe, które są wyrażone w trzech czasach (przeszłym, teraźniejszym i przyszłym). Zdania składają się z wyrazów, które mają dwie odrębne formy istnienia (formę wokalną – słowo, i formę wyobrażeniową – znaczenie). Wyrazy te są zazwyczaj czasownikami, które reprezentują czynności ze świata rzeczywistego, i rzeczownikami, które występują w siedmiu[1] przypadkach (w zależności od sposobu uczestnictwa w czynnościach ze świata rzeczywistego).

Indyjski gramatyk Panini (około 520 – 460 p.n.e.) jest często uznawany za twórcę językoznawstwa. Jest znany jako autor dzieła gramatycznego pod tytułem Aṣṭādhyāyī, zresztą do dzisiaj używanego w nauce i analizie sanskrytu. Gramatyka Paniniego jest wysoko usystematyzowana i techniczna, wprowadzając pojęcia fonemu, morfemu i rdzenia (rozpoznane dopiero przez zachodnich językoznawców około dwóch tysięcy lat później). Reguły Paniniego opisują całość morfologii języka. Następstwem tego, że jego gramatyka skupia się na zwięzłości, jest jej nieintuicyjna struktura, przypominająca współczesny język maszynowy (jako przeciwieństwo zrozumiałych przez ludzi języków programowania). Zaawansowane logiczne zasady i techniki Paniniego miały duży wpływ zarówno na starożytne, jak również na współczesne językoznawstwo.

Bhartrihari (ok. 450 – 510) – kolejny ważny autor teorii indyjskiego językoznawstwa. Stworzył on teorię, według której akt mowy składa się z czterech etapów:

  • pierwszy – konceptualizacja danej myśli,
  • drugi – jej werbalizacja oraz sekwencjonowanie,
  • trzeci – wygłoszenie wypowiedzi w przestrzeń, wszystko to wykonane przez mówcę
  • i czwarty – zrozumienie wypowiedzi przez słuchacza – osobę interpretującą.

Praca Paniniego oraz Bhartrihariego, miała znaczący wpływ na wiele z podstawowych poglądów zaproponowanych przez wykładowcę sanskrytu, Ferdinanda de Saussure’a, który jest powszechnie uważany za ojca współczesnego językoznawstwa strukturalnego.

W 760 roku na Środkowym Wschodzie perski językoznawca Sibawajh stworzył w swojej obszernej pracy pod tytułem Al-kitab fi al-nahw (الكتاب في النحوKsięga o gramatyce) szczegółowy i profesjonalny opis arabskiego, ukazując wiele lingwistycznych aspektów języka. Sibawajh w swojej książce odróżnił fonetykę od fonologii.

Do pierwszych zachodnich językoznawców zaliczają się Jakob Grimm, który w roku 1822 stworzył zasadę spółgłoskowych zmian w wymowie znaną jako prawo Grimma, Karl Verner, który wymyślił Prawo Vernera, August Schleicher, który stworzył „Stammbaumtheorie” oraz Johannes Schmidt, który w roku 1872 stworzył „Wellentheorie” („model falowy”). Ferdinand de Saussure jest stwórcą współczesnej lingwistyki strukturalnej. Edward Sapir, lider w amerykańskiej lingwistyce strukturalnej był jednym z pierwszych, którzy badali zależności pomiędzy nauką o języku a antropologią. Jego metodologia ma ogromny wpływ na jego wszystkich następców. Początkowo badania nad językiem odbywały się w ramach filologii, traktującej język przede wszystkim jako narzędzie literatury. Konsekwencją tego podejścia był preskryptywizm i traktowanie języka mówionego jako niedoskonałej wersji języka pisanego.

Od lat 60. XX wieku głównym modelem języka jest model formalny Noama Chomsky’ego, który rozwinął się pod kierunkiem jego nauczyciela, Zelliga Harrisa, będącego z kolei pod ogromnym wpływem Leonarda Bloomfielda. Chomsky pozostaje najbardziej wpływowym językoznawcą na świecie. Lingwiści zajmujący się Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG) czy Gramatyką Leksykalno-Funkcyjną (LFG), podkreślają znaczenie formalizacji i formalnego rygoru w opisie lingwistycznym, i dystansują się nieco od ostatniej pracy Chomsky’ego (program „Minimalistyczny” dla gramatyki transformacyjnej), przyłączając się bardziej do wcześniejszych jego prac. Lingwiści związani z teorią optymalności wskazują uogólnienia pod względem naruszalnych reguł, co jest większym odejściem od głównego nurtu językoznawstwa, a lingwiści zajmujący się różnymi rodzajami gramatyki funkcjonalnej i lingwistyki kognitywnej mają tendencję do podkreślania braku autonomii wiedzy lingwistycznej i braku uniwersalności struktur lingwistycznych, dlatego też znacznie odchodzą od paradygmatu Chomsky’ego.
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http://www.linguistica.umk.pl/teksty/06_sobotkazn.pdf
Historia badań etymologicznych w świetle koncepcji i metod współczesnej lingwistyki
Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika Instytut Języka Polskiego
Piotr Sobotka

http://www.rastko.rs/cms/files/books/4ae0bf194b8cb
POWSTANIE JĘZYKA I PISMA ETRUSKIEGO VINCZAŃSKIEGO I WENETYJSKIEGO W ŚWIETLE ALTERNTYWNYCH TEORII POŁUDNIOWOSŁOWIAŃSKICH
Magdalena Sieroń

http://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=4&ved=0CDcQFjAD&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ptj.civ.pl%2Fcomponent%2Foption%2Ccom_docman%2Ftask%2Cdoc_download%2Fgid%2C16%2FItemid%2C7%2F&ei=43U1VfruEoPwaJWDgZgD&usg=AFQjCNE3Xum8xbCinbfUgoxXEsRV8RmRIA&bvm=bv.91071109,d.d2s
BIULETYN POLSKIEGO TOWARZYSTWA JĘZYKOZNAWCZEGO
ZESZYT LVIII – FASCICULE LVIII  ISSN 0032-3802
UNIVERSITAS, Kraków 2002

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linguistics
Linguistics is the scientific[1] study of language.[2]There are three aspects to this study: language form, language meaning, and language in context.[3] The earliest activities in the description of language have been attributed to Pāṇini (fl. 4th century BCE),[4] with his analysis of Sanskrit in Ashtadhyayi.[5]
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indo-European_studies
Indo-European studies is a field of linguistics and an interdisciplinary field of study dealing with Indo-European languages, both current and extinct.[1] Its goal is to amass information about the hypothetical proto-language from which all of these languages are descended, a language dubbed Proto-Indo-European (PIE), and its speakers, the Proto-Indo-Europeans, including their society and religion. The studies cover where the language originated and how it spread. This article also lists Indo-European scholars, centres, journals and book series. (…)

http://boards.straightdope.com/sdmb/showthread.php?t=54630
The letter K in Latin kalendae

To this day, the Romance languages and Irish avoid using the letter K. They always use C (or „qu” in certain cases) to spell the /k/ sound. The reason for this is that the ancient Romans decided not to use K in Latin, substituting C instead.

The Romans first adapted their alphabet from the Etruscans, who used a modified Greek alphabet, with K, of course, for the /k/ sound. The Etruscan language did not distinguish between voiced and unvoiced consonants, so the Etruscan gamma could be pronounced /k/. The Romans perpetuated this habit, and modified the gamma by curving it some more until it looked like C. Then they had to add an extra stroke to distinguish the letter for the /g/ sound: G.

Early on, there was a Latin spelling convention to use C before e and i, K before a and o, and Q before u. This three-way division would actually be useful to distinguish the palatal, velar, and postvelar articulations. But since there was no phonemic distinction between them in Latin, the distinction served no purpose. So they took to using C for the /k/ sound in all positions, except when Qu was followed by a vowel.

The letter K still did not die out; they kept using it for one word, and one word only: Kalendae, the name for the first day of each month.

I wonder why???

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According to the excellent etymologies in the first edition of the American Heritage Dictionary, the Latin word [/i]kalendae[/i] comes from the Proto-Indo-European root *kel- (also *kele-), ‚to shout’. From this root also come Germanic hlowan > English low (in the sense of animal cry), Latin clamare ‚to call’, Greek kalein (that’s the verb you cited, but it isn’t the source of kalendae), Latin clarus ‚clear’, and lots of other words.

The etymology for kalendae says: „Suffixed form kal-and- in Latin kalendae, the calends, the first day of the month when it was publicly announced on which days the nones and ides of that month would fall.”

The Barnhart Dictionary of Etymology says it „derived from *calere, variant of calare call out, proclaim, cognate with Greek kalein to call; see LOW, v. make the sound of a cow.” Note: cognate does not mean derived from.

There is also the etymology for the word calendar, from Medieval Latin [/i]kalendarium[/i] which was „a moneylender’s account book (because the monthly interest was due on the calends).” This lends weight to your bookkeeper’s abbreviation theory.

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Well no, not quite. The archaic Etruscan alphabet features a character used for c/g (/k/, /g/), this is basically our c, but facing left (Etruscan usually runs right to left). The characters for b, d, g were all dropped early, along with o. However, for /k/, archaic Etruscan uses different letters dpending on the following vowel: ka, ce, ci, qu. Around the 5th century B.C.E, the orthography was simplified, and C used in all positions for /k/.

In Latin, because gamma had already been used for /k/and /g/ in Etruscan, Spurius Carvilius Rufa invented g in the third century B.C.E.by adding a stroke to C.

This was taken from: The World’s Writing Systems by Daniels and Bright.

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From Andrew L. Sihler. New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin. NY, 1995. p.21.
Quote:
In the earliest Old Latin epigraphy, the symbols C (<), K and Q were all employed for /k/ and /g/, the choice of symbol being determined by the vowel following: Q stood before rounded vowels (EQO „ego”), and K before A. This last detail is continue into the classical period in the few forms in which k is retained, chiefly kalendae „the Kalends”. Otherwise, the use of C spread at the expense of the other two letters. The persistence of Q in its single environment is hard to explain…

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Originally posted by Arjuna34
I was under the impression that the letter K was only used by the Romans with certain words imported from Greek, and that kalenda was one of those. I don’t think any „native” Latin words used K- instead, as mentioned in the OP, C was used (and was always a hard C).
No, all the Greek loanwords with kappa were spelled with C in Latin. All of them, without exception. The word kalendae is native Latin, not a Greek loanword.

The suggestion that it was a useful abreviation for bookkeepers or whatever sounds like it may be plausible.

The reason for the OP is that if the Romans hadn’t kept using the letter K for just this one word, it would have long ago disappeared into oblivion and we wouldn’t have it today. Look how useful it is (for non-Romance languages), especially in phonetic transcriptions where you need to unambiguously indicate the /k/ sound; „c” is hopeless for that, since it has taken on so many different pronunciations:
/k/ in cat
/s/ in celery
/t$/ in Pacino
/ts/ (as used in Slavic languages, Hungarian, and Pinyin)
/ð/ (as used in Fijian)
/dZ/ (as used in Turkish)
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Arjuna, I believe you are quite correct.
C’s were, btw, all originally pronounced like K’s in Latin. Only after about the 1st century BCE did the Latin speakers begin to pronounce ci and ce like si and se.

https://linguistics.as.uky.edu/users/amby222
Research Interests: Indo-European Linguistics, Phonology, Linguistics, Historical linguistics

http://www.utexas.edu/cola/centers/lrc/books/pies01.html
Proto-Indo-European Syntax by Winfred P. Lehmann

http://tied.verbix.com/
Indo-European Language Groups

http://www.academia.edu/1495687/Gruit_Grus_The_Indo-European_Names_of_the_Crane
Gruit Grus: The Indo-European Names of the Crane by Piotr Gąsiorowski

http://www.academia.edu/8073283/Indo-European_Origins.The_Problem_of_Basque_and_Etruscan-_SLIDES
Indo-European Origins. The Problem of Basque and Etruscan – SLIDES

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v426/n6965/full/nature02029.html
Language-tree divergence times support the Anatolian theory of Indo-European origin
Russell D. Gray & Quentin D. Atkinson
Department of Psychology, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1020, New Zealand

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v426/n6965/fig_tab/nature02029_F1.html?WT.mc_id=PIN_NPG
Where there have Latin, Mittani, Scythian and Etruscan been lost?

http://www.flickr.com/photos/mcd/2470189975/in/set-72157602086966139/
Languages of Europe

http://blog.matthen.com/post/5865126226/an-interesting-diagram-showing-the-family-tree-of
Diagram showing the family tree of Indo-European languages. At the bottom is Proto-Indo-European, the reconstructed common ancestor.

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2437445/Ancient-language-called-PIE-heard-4-000-years-recorded-time.html
Ancient language not heard for 4,000 years is recorded for the first time as linguists work out how English came about using ancient texts

Sheep And Horses

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schleicher%27s_fable
„As PIE was conjectured to be spoken by a prehistoric society, no genuine sample texts are available, but since the 19th century modern scholars have made various attempts to compose example texts for purposes of illustration. These texts are educated guesses at best; Calvert Watkins in 1969 observes that in spite of its 150 years’ history, comparative linguistics is not in the position to reconstruct a single well-formed sentence in PIE. Because of this and other similar objections based on Pratishakyas, such texts are of limited use in getting an impression of what a coherent utterance in PIE might have sounded like.”

http://digilib.phil.muni.cz/bitstream/handle/11222.digilib/101542/A_Linguistica_47-1999-1_2.pdf
INDO-EUROPEAN „ONE” AND „First” BY VACLAV BLAZER

http://www.academia.edu/9229839/Slavic_edin-_one_and_Winters_law
Slavic *edin- ‚one’ and Winter’s law
Robert Woodhouse

https://helda.helsinki.fi/bitstream/handle/10138/41760/systempi.pdf?sequence=1
System PIE The Primary Phoneme Inventory and Sound Law System for Proto-Indo-European by Jouna Pyysalo
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A single laryngeal PIE h = H™i was already discovered by Ladislav Zgusta (1951), however, and subsequently it was confirmed by Johann Tischler (1977ff.). The current dissertation studies unexplored properties of PIE and demonstrates that this laryngeal had a voiceless (PIE h) and a voiced (PIEh)variant with glottal fricative articulation.
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http://caio.ueberalles.net/Indo-European-Linguistics-Introduction/Indo-European%20Language%20and%20Culture%20-%20Benjamin%20W.%20Fortson%20IV.pdf
Indo European Linguistics Introduction/Indo-European Language and Culture – Benjamin W. Fortson IV

http://quizlet.com/6428652/the-major-laws-of-indo-european-flash-cards/
The major laws of indo-european

http://www.academia.edu/4163179/Brugmanns_Law
Brugmann’s Law

http://people.ds.cam.ac.uk/naz21/bird_and_egg.Zair.pdf
PIE‘ bird’ and ‘egg’ after Schindler by NICHOLAS ZAIR

http://ling.umd.edu/~bridget/pdfs/attic.pdf
Problems in Attic – Ionic Phonology
„*orea ‘mountains’ (n.nom/acc.pl)Attic ὄρη”

http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/65/81/15/PDF/Verner_Noske_Nantes.pdf
Verner’s law, phonetic substance and form of historical phonological description

http://baltistica.lt/index.php/baltistica/article/viewFile/2143/2080
Proto-Indo-European long vowels and Balto-slavic accentuation

http://exadmin.matita.net/uploads/pagine/655984700_Avestan0a.pdf
PHONOLOGY OF IRANIAN

http://f3.tiera.ru/other/DVD-010/Lehmann_W.P.A_Reader_in_Nineteenth_Century_Historical_Indo-European_Linguistics%281967%29%28en%29%28269s%29.pdf
A Reader in Nineteenth Century Historical Indo-European Linguistics

http://uknowledge.uky.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1054&context=lin_facpub
Reconstructing Indo-European Syllabification

http://www.lacus.org/volumes/23/12.pulju.pdf
INDO-EUROPEAN ‘JAW, CHEEK, CHIN’

http://www.protogermanic.com/search/label/linguistics
PROTO-GERMANIC;INDO-EUROPEAN STUDIES

http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/65/81/15/PDF/Verner_Noske_Nantes.pdf
Verner’s law, phonetic substance and form of historical phonological description

http://www.academia.edu/6727335/Contact_and_Prehistory_The_Indo-European_Northwest
Contact and Prehistory:The Indo-European Northwest by THEO VENNEMANN

http://wings.buffalo.edu/org/gggaas/GLAC9/PlenaryTheoVennemannGLAC9Abstract.pdf
The birth of Germanic: Towards an absolute chronology

http://digilib.phil.muni.cz/bitstream/handle/11222.digilib/113980/N_GraecoLatina_10-2005-1_3.pdf
PALEO-BALKANIAN LANGUAGES I: HELLENIC LANGUAGES

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-968X.2006.00170.x/abstract
Grimm’s Law and loanwords* by Theo Vennemann
This article addresses the controversy about the reconstruction of the Proto-Indo-European consonant inventory, namely the question of whether the traditional, Neo-Grammarian reconstruction or one of the more recent alternatives such as the Glottalic Theory is correct. This question is directly related to that of the proper formulation of Grimm’s Law. In the traditional framework the Proto-Germanic voiceless plosives derive from an Indo-European series of plain voiced plosives, whereas in the alternative account they derive from some kind of voiceless plosives, e.g. voiceless glottalics. The article brings to bear on the problem a new kind of evidence: the integration of prehistoric Semitic loanwords. This evidence unambiguously supports the traditional framework, in particular a shift of voiced to voiceless plosives under Grimm’s Law.

https://www.uni-due.de/~lan300/18_Language_Change_in_Early_Britain_%28Hickey%29.pdf
Language change in early Britain: The convergence account

http://vernaculum.files.wordpress.com/2011/10/rebecca-5.pdf
Basque in Western Europe: some arguments for a Vasconic substratum

http://www.well.com/~mareev/portal/prehistory/white_goddess_graves_review/White_Goddess_updated4.html
A Critical Review and Update of Robert Graves „The White Goddess” – An Investigation (Page 4)

http://wanda.uef.fi/ecc/colloquium/vennemann.html
Semitic —> Celtic —> English: the transitivity of language contact

http://linguistics.stackexchange.com/questions/911/was-there-a-semitic-influence-on-proto-germanic
Was there a Semitic influence on Proto-Germanic?

http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=jyDjgt1CcU4C&pg=PA65&lpg=PA65&dq=%22Origin+and+Relatives+of+the+Basque+Language%22&source=bl&ots=MPuC8HyPhO&sig=tKr2tRa1VgvA3wL-Sr-Mg6RsI3s&hl=en&ei=nAeuTsnyMsHs0gHMuNibBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=%22Origin%20and%20Relatives%20of%20the%20Basque%20Language%22&f=false
Towards a History of the Basque Language

http://email.eva.mpg.de/~wichmann/Mailhammer-IE.pdf
Subgrouping Indo-European: A fresh perspective

http://yorkspace.library.yorku.ca/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10315/3642/icos23_228.pdf?sequence=1
A Glimpse through a Dirty Window into an Unlit House:
Names of Some North-West European Islands

http://www.kortlandt.nl/publications/art030e.pdf
ON THE fflSTORY OF THE GENITIVE PLURAL IN SLAVIC, BALTIC, GERMANIC, AND INDO-EUROPEAN

https://www.princeton.edu/~pswpc/pdfs/katz/070702.pdf
The Origin of the Greek Pluperfect
Abstract: The origin of the pluperfect is the biggest remaining hole in our understanding of the Ancient Greek verbal system. This paper provides a novel unitary account of all four morphological types — alphathematic, athematic, thematic, and the anomalous Homeric form 3sg. ᾔδη (ēídē) ‘knew’—beginning with a “Jasanoff-type” reconstruction in Proto-Indo-European, an “imperfect of the perfect.”

http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=b_6OMfZ1QpUC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false
Language Contact, Creolization, and Genetic Linguistics
By Sarah Grey Thomason, Terrence Kaufman

http://lf.clavmon.cz/LF/Pln%C3%A9%20texty/2011/Pultrova.pdf
FROM THE PROTO-INDO-EUROPEAN TO THE CLASSICAL LATIN ACCENT

http://www.academia.edu/341443/Indo-European_root_dem_h2_-_to_build_and_its_derivatives
Indo-European root *dem(h2)- ‘to build’ and its derivatives

http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/flih.2002.23.issue-1-2/flih.2002.23.1-2.23/flih.2002.23.1-2.23.xml?format=INT
SPECULATIONS ABOUT THE ORIGIN OF THE INDO-EUROPEAN O-STEMS

http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/flih.2002.23.issue-1-2/flih.2002.23.1-2.1/flih.2002.23.1-2.1.xml?format=INT
EVIDENCE IN SUPPORT OF PROTO-INDO-HITTITE

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indo-European_sound_laws#Vowels_and_syllabic_consonants
As the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) broke up, its sound system diverged as well, according to various sound laws in the daughter languages.

http://ind.elte.hu/gliep3_ittzes.pdf
Wojciech Sowa/Stefan Schaffner (eds.)
Greek and Latin from an Indo-European Perspective 3 (GLIEP 3)

http://people.ds.cam.ac.uk/naz21/bird_and_egg.Zair.pdf
PIE ‘bird’ and ‘egg’ after Schindler
NICHOLAS ZAIR

http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/65/81/15/PDF/Verner_Noske_Nantes.pdf
Verner’s law, phonetic substance and form of historical phonological description
Roland Noske

http://ling.umd.edu/~bridget/pdfs/attic.pdf
Problems in Attic-Ionic Phonology
Bridget Samuels

http://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=74&ved=0CDsQFjADOEY&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.migration-diffusion.info%2Fpdfdownload.php%3Fid%3D83%26file%3D1&ei=qjVtU8jmK6qg7Aa1tIGwCQ&usg=AFQjCNGMMCVARpHdr4HN-I-tK1qjlmDHpw
A LINGUISTIC BREAKTHROUGH FOR THE RECONSTRUCTION OF EUROPE’S PREHISTORY
VENNEMANN’S THESIS OF A VASCONIC AND PROTO-SEMITIC EUROPE AND ITS RAMIFICATIONS
Dr. Horst Friedrich

http://forum.wordreference.com/showthread.php?t=2475535
Etymology of „apple”

http://www.kondaira.net/eng/Euskara0001.html
The History of Euskara continues on the following page: The theory of the Proto-Basque expansion.

http://starling.rinet.ru/Texts/winter.pdf
Balto-Slavic Accentology and Winter’s Law

http://cls.psu.edu/pubs/pubs/LINGUA1158.pdf
Review Europa Vasconica-Europa Semitica by Theo Vennemann

https://spacezilotes.wordpress.com/2010/12/09/hellenic-ancient-dialects-proto-graieak-meros-a/
Greek substrate

http://www.omilosmeleton.gr/pdf/en/indology/SPIE.pdf
Sanskrit and Proto-Indo-European
N Kazanas, Omilos Meleton, Athens: March 2004.

http://www.filg.uj.edu.pl/documents/41616/9859926/leschber-latin_tree_names_and_the_european_substratum.pdf
LATIN TREE NAMES AND THE EUROPEAN SUBSTRATUM

http://lepo.it.da.ut.ee/~ehalam/pdf/EhalaUprusLU.pdf

THE MECHANISM OF SUBSTRATE IMPACT ON SUPERSTRATE: ASSESSING URALIC SUBSTRATE IN GERMANIC by MARTIN EHALA,TENE ÜPRUS

http://www.uni-konstanz.de/serzants/DativeExperiencer_Revised_3.pdf
Dative experiencer constructions as a Circum-Baltic isogloss
Ilja A. Seržant

http://www.centerslo.net/files/file/simpozij/sim20/paliga.pdf
ARCHAIC PLACE NAMES IN SLOVENIA: PRE-INDO-EUROPEAN, INDO-EUROPEAN (ILLYRIAN, CELTIC,
THRACIAN), EARLY ROMANCE

http://www.randevu-zip.narod.ru/caucase/addon/substrat.pdf
Substrate Languages in Old Indo-Aryan(Rigvedic, Middle and Late Vedic).
Michael Witzel

http://www.sarks.fi/fa/PDF/FA11_104.pdf
„ACTIVE SLAVS” AND „PASSIVE FINNS”:A REPLY

http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/dspace/bitstream/1808/8574/1/SCN%201_2011_HampA.pdf
Slavic *mokrъ, Irish ainmech ‘wet, rain’
Eric P. Hamp

https://sucs.org/~pwb/misc/sample.txt
The „Urheimat” of Proto-Finno-Ugric, the hypothetical proto-language of the
modern Finno-Ugric languages, cannot be located with any certainty.(…)

http://escholarship.org/uc/item/23r8p63b#page-3
The History of Predicative Possession in Slavic: Internal Development vs. Language Contact
McAnallen, Julia

http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:327261/FULLTEXT01.pdf
Central Slovak and Kajkavian Structural Convergences: A Tentative Survey

https://linguistlist.org/issues/7/7-559.html
I’ve noticed that in both Czech and Hungarian the word for „world” also serves as the root for the adjective „light”(…)

http://www.doiserbia.nb.rs/img/doi/0350-7653/2003/0350-76530334097L.pdf
SOME TRACES OF INTERLINGUISTIC CONTACTS IN THE CENTRAL BALKAN MOUNTAINS
Aleksandar Loma

http://www.korenine.si/zborniki/zbornik10/siriski_plant_names.pdf
LATIN PLANT NAMES AS SUPERSTRUCTURE ON IINIGENOUS PROTOSlAVIC SUBSTRATE
Zoran Siriški

http://www.academia.edu/4124457/Contact_and_the_development_of_the_Slavic_languages
Contact and the Development of the Slavic Languages

http://www.hf.uio.no/ifikk/english/research/news-and-events/events/conferences/2013/ichl2013/workshops/workshopsubstrates.pdf
Substrate Languages in Northern Europe: Methodological Perspectives

http://www.kortlandt.nl/publications/art203e.pdf
THE INDO-URALIC VERB by Frederik Kortlandt

http://www.kortlandt.nl/publications/art111e.pdf
THE SPREAD OF THE INDO-EUROPEANS by Frederik Kortlandt

http://pl.scribd.com/doc/14180564/INDO-ARYAN-AND-SLAVIC-LINGUISTIC-AFFINITIES
INDO-ARYAN AND SLAVIC LINGUISTIC AND GENETIC AFFINITIES PREDATE THE ORIGIN OF CEREAL FARMING
Author:Joseph Skulj, Jagdish C. Sharda, Snejina Sonina, Ratnakar Narale

http://www.geocurrents.info/
GeoCurrents is a forum dedicated to exploring events from all over the world by delving into the peoples, places, genes, and languages that are shaping them.
The aim of GeoCurrents is not to take sides on any of these events, but to help foster an enriching and respectful exchange of information and ideas.

http://www.geocurrents.info/indo-european-origins/vexatious-history-indo-european-studies-part
http://www.geocurrents.info/indo-european-origins/vexatious-history-indo-european-studies-part-ii
http://www.geocurrents.info/indo-european-origins/vexatious-history-indo-european-studies-part-iii
http://www.geocurrents.info/cultural-geography/linguistic-geography/proto-indo-european-sound-like-can-know
http://www.geocurrents.info/geonotes/the-geography-of-cucumber
http://www.geocurrents.info/cultural-geography/linguistic-geography/say-cheese
http://www.geocurrents.info/cultural-geography/linguistic-geography/the-geography-of-the-onion-vocabulary
http://www.geocurrents.info/geonotes/what-will-you-have-tea-or-chai
http://www.geocurrents.info/cultural-geography/linguistic-geography/the-khazarian-hypothesis-and-the-nature-of-yiddish
http://www.geocurrents.info/indo-european-origins/questions-readers-regarded-biblical-ethnography
http://www.geocurrents.info/cultural-geography/linguistic-geography/world-maps-of-language-families
http://www.geocurrents.info/cultural-geography/linguistic-geography/ideological-agendas-and-indo-european-origins-master-race-bloodthirsty-kurgans-or-proto-hippies
http://www.geocurrents.info/cultural-geography/linguistic-geography/how-large-was-the-area-in-which-proto-indo-european-was-spoken
http://www.geocurrents.info/cultural-geography/linguistic-geography/the-mis-mapping-of-the-indo-european-homeland
http://www.geocurrents.info/cultural-geography/linguistic-geography/the-consistently-incorrect-mapping-of-language-differentiation-in-bouckaert-et-al
http://www.geocurrents.info/population-geography/the-role-of-advection-in-modeling-population-migrations
http://www.geocurrents.info/cultural-geography/linguistic-geography/shared-innovations-are-more-important-than-shared-retentions
http://www.geocurrents.info/cultural-geography/linguistic-geography/103-errors-in-mapping-indo-european-languages-in-bouckaert-et-al-part-i
http://www.geocurrents.info/cultural-geography/linguistic-geography/103-errors-in-mapping-indo-european-languages-in-bouckaert-et-al-part-ii-from-afghanistan-to-anatolia
http://www.geocurrents.info/cultural-geography/linguistic-geography/103-errors-in-mapping-indo-european-languages-in-bouckaert-et-al-part-iii-from-western-russia-to-the-balkan-peninsula
http://www.geocurrents.info/cultural-geography/linguistic-geography/103-errors-in-mapping-indo-european-languages-in-bouckaert-et-al-part-iv-central-europe
http://www.geocurrents.info/cultural-geography/linguistic-geography/103-errors-in-mapping-indo-european-languages-in-bouckaert-et-al-concluded-part-v-western-europe
http://www.geocurrents.info/cultural-geography/linguistic-geography/the-misleading-and-inconsistent-language-selection-in-bouckaert-et-al
http://www.geocurrents.info/cultural-geography/linguistic-geography/on-pathological-rationalism-and-other-epistemological-issues-in-the-indo-european-controversy
http://www.geocurrents.info/geographical-thought/the-hazards-of-formal-geographical-modeling-in-bouckaert-et-al-and-elsewhere
http://www.geocurrents.info/cultural-geography/linguistic-geography/on-mathematical-modeling-and-inter-disciplinary-work-in-historical-linguistics-a-reply-to-alexei-drummond-and-a-friendly-critique-of-the-field
http://www.geocurrents.info/cultural-geography/linguistic-geography/why-the-indo-european-debate-matters-and-matters-deeply
http://www.geocurrents.info/cultural-geography/linguistic-geography/absolute-dating-and-the-romance-problems-on-the-bouckaertatkinson-model
http://www.geocurrents.info/cultural-geography/linguistic-geography/the-malformed-language-tree-of-bouckaert-and-his-colleagues
http://www.geocurrents.info/cultural-geography/linguistic-geography/tracing-indo-european-languages-back-to-their-source-through-the-false-mirrors-of-the-popular-press
http://www.geocurrents.info/cultural-geography/linguistic-geography/quentin-atkinsons-nonsensical-maps-of-indo-european-expansion
http://www.geocurrents.info/cultural-geography/linguistic-geography/mismodeling-indo-european-origin-and-expansion-bouckaert-atkinson-wade-and-the-assault-on-historical-linguistics
http://www.geocurrents.info/cultural-geography/linguistic-geography/response-to-quentin-d-atkinson
http://www.geocurrents.info/cultural-geography/linguistic-geography/wheel-vocabulary-puts-a-spoke-in-bouckaert-et-al-s-wheel
http://www.geocurrents.info/place/russia-ukraine-and-caucasus/the-profound-vepsian-influences-on-russian-culture-and-language

  1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4jHsy4xeuoQ
    Mismodeling Indo-European Origins: The Assault On Historical Linguistics | GeoCurrents
    (…)
    The talk presented here was originally delivered at Stanford University on December 13, 2012, sponsored by Stanford’s Program in History and Philosophy of Science and Technology and co-sponsored by the Department of Linguistics. After a brief introduction by Kären Wigen, chair of the Stanford History Department, the presenters jointly deliver an address that lasts for some 50 minutes. A fifteen- minute period of questions and answers rounds out the video presentation.

The talk begins with Martin Lewis providing a brief examination of the media coverage of the issue. As he shows, not only the New York Times but also a number of other major news outlets, including Scientific American and the BBC, unreasonably portrayed the Science article as constituting a major scientific breakthrough. He then moves on to consider the significance of the topic, arguing that Indo-European origins and expansion has long been one of the most ideologically fraught issues of the human past, and that politically charged preconceptions continue to muddle scholarly interpretations. Asya Pereltsvaig subsequently explains the model used by the Science team, and then goes on to outline its linguistic failings, examining matters of vocabulary, grammar, and phonology. Martin Lewis then outlines the geo-historical problems of the Science paper before offering a few observations on the creation of ignorance. Asya Pereltsvaig concludes the presentation with a discussion of the languishing condition of historical linguistics and a warning about the possibility of generating „lodged fallacies” in the public imagination.

  1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sOEaAD2x9ac
    Language Typology – The Classification of Languages

  2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0yj_TrtaS4k
    Language Typology – Language Reconstruction

  3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tAnrmOuOU9g
    Kurdish History – The Kurdish Scythian (Saka) Language

  4. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q-B_ONJIEcE
    Steven Pinker: Linguistics as a Window to Understanding the Brain

  5. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rYuPFpckHUc
    History and Geography of Languages – Festival delle Scienze 2014 in Rome
    Over the past decade, a well-funded group of biologists and computer scientists has attempted to reinvent historical linguistics on seemingly more scientific lines. These scholars treat words as evolutionary theorists treat genes and conceptualize the spread of languages as epidemiologists model the diffusion of viruses. Doing so has supposedly allowed them to solve long-standing puzzles, such as the origin of the Indo-European family. Rejecting the mainstream view that Proto-Indo-European emerged among pastoralists of the Pontic Steppes some 4,000 years BCE, they locate it instead among Anatolian farmers several millennia earlier. But in actuality, linguistic evolution cannot be comprehended through non-linguistic models that reduce language to a compilation of words. By examining the actual historical geography of language division and spread, we show that the new evolutionary linguistics is ultimately a pseudo-scientific endeavor. Instead, we bring together different strands of evidence from reconstructions of Proto-Indo-European, linguistic paleontology, and other cutting-edge linguistic techniques to clarify the vexed question of Indo-European origins.

  6. https://vimeo.com/17584504
    Edward Vajda on Languages Across Bering Strait

Może być tak, że ludzie posiadający haplogrupy Q i R mówiły już jakimś Przed-Przed-Przed-Słowiańskim językiem…

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