Ryt – rysunek wykonany w twardym materiale za pomocą rylca (grawerstwo)
1. rysunek wgłębny wykonany za pomocą jakiegokolwiek rylca w twardym materiale
2. sposób wykonywania czynności liturgicznych

1. robić wgłębienia, rozgrzebywać;
2. rzeźbić, wycinać ornamenty;
3. uczyć się czegoś
1. drapać czymś ostrym po powierzchni czegoś, zdrapywać wierzchnią warstwę, oczyszczać z czegoś
2. potocznie: pisać
3. skrobać się – drapać się
30.000 do 20.000 p.n.e. Rycie karbów na kościach
Pismo – system umownych znaków, za pomocą których przedstawiany jest język mówiony. Jako jeden z ludzkich wynalazków intelektualnych jest środkiem porozumiewania się oraz odzwierciedleniem mowy i myśli. Zanim powstało pismo, do przekazywania mowy służyły obrazki, różne środki mnemotechniczne oraz zrozumiałe dla danej społeczności, przedtem uzgodnione i odpowiednio spreparowane, symbole. Pismo ewoluowało od najstarszego stadium – piktografii, poprzez ideografię, pismo analityczne, aż do najmłodszego – pisma fonetycznego.
Magdalena Sieroń
Материалы сайта впервые в полном объеме представляют в сети Интернет ценнейший исторический и лингвистический источник – древнерусские грамоты на бересте XI–XVграмоты на бересте XI–XV вв. (берестяные грамоты).
Prof. Dr. Jos Schaeken (Йос Схакен)
Dean Leiden University College
Professor of Slavic and Baltic languages and cultural history
Birchbark Literacy from Medieval Rus: Contents and Contexts (INTAS-Project Ref. Nr. 03-51-3867)
The oldest known written sentence in your mother tongue
The Gradeshnitsa tablets (Bulgarian: Плочката от Градешница) are, along with the Tărtăria tablets, examples of late neolithic proto-writing known as the Vinča signs. They were unearthed in 1969 in north-western Bulgaria (Gradeshnitsa village, Vratsa Province). The tablets are dated to the 5th millennium BC and are currently preserved in the Vratsa Archeological Museum of Bulgaria.[1] In 2006, these tablets were the subject of attention in Bulgarian media due to claims made by Stephen Guide, a Bulgarian American of the Institute of Transcendent Analysis, Long Beach, California, who claimed he had deciphered the tablets.
Symbols and proto-writing of the Cucuteni–Trypillian culture
Beginning in 1875 up to the present, archaeologists have found more than a thousand Neolithic era clay artifacts that have examples of symbols similar to the Vinča symbols scattered widely throughout south-eastern Europe. These include:

*The Tărtăria Tablets, discovered in 1961 in the village of Tărtăria, Săliştea, Alba County, Romania.
*The Gradeshnitsa Tablets, discovered in 1969 in Gradeshnitsa, Vratsa Province, Bulgaria.
*The Dispilio Tablet, discovered in 1994 in Dispilio, Kastoria regional unit, Greece.
*The Cucuteni-Trypillian pintadera (or barter tokens)
Thus it appears that the Vinča or Vinča-Tordos symbols are not restricted to just the region around Belgrade, which is where the Vinča culture existed, but that they spread across most of southeastern Europe, and was used throughout the geographical region of the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture.
The Tărtăria tablets are three tablets, discovered in 1961 by archaeologist Nicolae Vlassa at a Neolithic site in the village of Tărtăria (about 30 km (19 mi) from Alba Iulia), in Romania.[1] The tablets, dated to around 5300 BC,[2] bear incised symbols – the Vinča symbols – and have been the subject of considerable controversy among archaeologists, some of whom claim that the symbols represent the earliest known form of writing in the world.
The tablets are generally believed to have belonged to the Vinča-Turdaș culture, which at the time was believed by Serbian and Romanian archaeologists to have originated around 2700 BC. Vlassa interpreted the Tărtăria tablets as a hunting scene and the other two with signs as a kind of primitive writing similar to the early pictograms of the Sumerians. The discovery caused great interest in the archeological world as it predated the first Minoan writing, the oldest known writing in Europe.

However, subsequent radiocarbon dating on the Tărtăria finds pushed the date of the tablets (and therefore of the whole Vinča culture) much further back, to as long ago as 5500 BC, the time of the early Eridu phase of the Sumerian civilization in Mesopotamia.[8] Still, this is disputed in the light of apparently contradictory stratigraphic evidence.[9]

If the symbols are indeed a form of writing, then writing in the Danubian culture would far predate the earliest Sumerian cuneiform script or Egyptian hieroglyphs. They would thus be the world’s earliest known form of writing. This claim remains controversial.
Possible relationships to the area.
This group of artefacts, including the tablets, have some relation with the culture developed in the Black sea – Aegean area. Similar are found in Bulgaria the Gradeshnitsa tablets, Dispilio Tablet from southwest Macedonia etc. The material and the style used for the Tartaria artefacts shows some similarities to the ones used in the Cyclades area, as two of the statuettes are made of alabaster.
The Dispilio tablet is a wooden tablet bearing inscribed markings, unearthed during George Hourmouziadis’s excavations of Dispilio in Greece and carbon 14-dated to about 7300 BP. It was discovered in 1993 in a Neolithic lakeshore settlement that occupied an artificial island[1] near the modern village of Dispilio on Lake Kastoria in Kastoria regional unit, Greece.
The site appears to have been occupied over a long period, from the final stages of the Middle Neolithic (5600-5000 BC) to the Final Neolithic (3000 BC).(…)
The Aryan Origin of the Alphabet: Disclosing the Sumero Phoenician Parentage of Our Letters Ancient and Modern

Click to access Radivoje%20Pesic%20-%20Vincansko%20pismo.pdf

Omniglot is an encyclopedia of writing systems and languages.
Old European / Vinča / Danube script
Proto-Sinaitic / Proto-Canaanite
The Vinča Culture: (‚Old Europe’)
Sacred Script: Ancient Marks from Old Europe
Hittite Hieroglyphic Writing

What used to be called „Hieroglyphic Hittite” is now more accurately referred to as „Anatolian Hieroglyphic” (Hawkins, Melchert). The preserved hieroglyphic texts are actually written in Luwian, like Hittite, an Indo-European language. Although closely related to the Hittite language, Luwian is distinct. The term „hieroglyphic” used for Hittite writing was borrowed from the Egyptian terminology, and it simply implies that the Hittite writing, like the Egyptian, is pictographic. In no way does it imply that the Hittite hieroglyphic writing was borrowed from the Egyptian hieroglyphic or that it was in any way related to it.

The Hittite writing was in use from about 1500 to 700 B.C.E. in a large area extending from central Anatolia to northern Syria. Two main periods are distinguished: the earlier from 1500–1200 B.C.E., and the later from 1200 to 700 B.C.E. The language of the „Hittite hieroglyphic” inscriptions is related to the so-called „cuneiform Hittite” (or „Nesian”), so named because it is preserved in the cuneiform writing borrowed from Mesopotamia. Both of these languages and writings were used at the same time in the Hittite Empire, but while the use of cuneiform Hittite was limited to a small area around Boghazköy, the capital of the empire, and died out at the time of the empire’s collapse around 1200 B.C.E., „hieroglyphic Hittite” (i.e., Luwian) was used throughout the empire, and remained in use up to about 700 B.C.E. The deciphering of Hittite hieroglyphic writing was achieved only in the 1930s through the combined efforts of P. Meriggi, I.J. Gelb, E.O. Forrer, H.T. Bossert, and B. Hrozný. In the years after the Second World War, a great advancement in the deciphering of Hittite writing and language resulted from the discovery of bilingual Hittite and Phoenician inscriptions at Karatepe in Cilicia.

Two formal types of writing existed. The first was a monumental type with signs faithfully imitating the forms of pictures. The second, a cursive type, developed from the monumental type, with forms of signs so divergent from the original pictures that it is often difficult – if not impossible – to recognize their original pictographic form.

Hittite writing, like such other ancient Oriental systems as the Mesopotamian, Egyptian, and Chinese, represents word-syllabic type of writing. It consists of three classes of signs: logograms or word signs; syllabic signs, developed from the logograms by the rebus principle; and auxiliary marks and signs, such as punctuation marks and signs for determinatives, classifiers, or semantic indicators. In the use of logograms and auxiliary marks and signs, the Hittite system is identical or very similar to other word-syllabic systems. The normal Hittite syllabary consists of about 60 signs of the type ta, ti, te, tu, each representing a syllable beginning with a consonant and ending in a vowel. The writing does not indicate any distinction between voiced, voiceless, and aspirated consonants.

Nowhere but in the Aegean area in writings such as Linear B and Cypriote is there a syllabary identical to that of the Hittites. Accordingly, Hittite hieroglyphic writing can be assigned, together with Cretan writing and its derivatives, to the Aegean group of writings.
The Phrygian language. Translation of Phrygian scripts by Mel Copeland
(Based on a related work, Etruscan Phrases,first published in 1981)
The Lydian language. Translation of Lydian scripts by Mel Copeland
(Based on a related work, Etruscan Phrases, first published in 1981)
Minoan Linear A & Mycenaean Linear B
Minoan language blog
The letter K in Latin kalendae

To this day, the Romance languages and Irish avoid using the letter K. They always use C (or „qu” in certain cases) to spell the /k/ sound. The reason for this is that the ancient Romans decided not to use K in Latin, substituting C instead. The Romans first adapted their alphabet from the Etruscans, who used a modified Greek alphabet, with K, of course, for the /k/ sound. The Etruscan language did not distinguish between voiced and unvoiced consonants, so the Etruscan gamma could be pronounced /k/. The Romans perpetuated this habit, and modified the gamma by curving it some more until it looked like C. Then they had to add an extra stroke to distinguish the letter for the /g/ sound: G. Early on, there was a Latin spelling convention to use C before e and i, K before a and o, and Q before u. This three-way division would actually be useful to distinguish the palatal, velar, and postvelar articulations. But since there was no phonemic distinction between them in Latin, the distinction served no purpose. So they took to using C for the /k/ sound in all positions, except when Qu was followed by a vowel. The letter K still did not die out; they kept using it for one word, and one word only: Kalendae, the name for the first day of each month. I wonder why???
According to the excellent etymologies in the first edition of the American Heritage Dictionary, the Latin word [/i]kalendae[/i] comes from the Proto-Indo-European root *kel- (also *kele-), ‚to shout’. From this root also come Germanic hlowan > English low (in the sense of animal cry), Latin clamare ‚to call’, Greek kalein (that’s the verb you cited, but it isn’t the source of kalendae), Latin clarus ‚clear’, and lots of other words. The etymology for kalendae says: „Suffixed form kal-and- in Latin kalendae, the calends, the first day of the month when it was publicly announced on which days the nones and ides of that month would fall.” The Barnhart Dictionary of Etymology says it „derived from *calere, variant of calare call out, proclaim, cognate with Greek kalein to call; see LOW, v. make the sound of a cow.” Note: cognate does not mean derived from. There is also the etymology for the word calendar, from Medieval Latin [/i]kalendarium[/i] which was „a moneylender’s account book (because the monthly interest was due on the calends).” This lends weight to your bookkeeper’s abbreviation theory.
Well no, not quite. The archaic Etruscan alphabet features a character used for c/g (/k/, /g/), this is basically our c, but facing left (Etruscan usually runs right to left). The characters for b, d, g were all dropped early, along with o. However, for /k/, archaic Etruscan uses different letters dpending on the following vowel: ka, ce, ci, qu. Around the 5th century B.C.E, the orthography was simplified, and C used in all positions for /k/. In Latin, because gamma had already been used for /k/and /g/ in Etruscan, Spurius Carvilius Rufa invented g in the third century adding a stroke to C. This was taken from: The World’s Writing Systems by Daniels and Bright.
From Andrew L. Sihler. New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin. NY, 1995. p.21.
In the earliest Old Latin epigraphy, the symbols C (<), K and Q were all employed for /k/ and /g/, the choice of symbol being determined by the vowel following: Q stood before rounded vowels (EQO „ego”), and K before A. This last detail is continue into the classical period in the few forms in which k is retained, chiefly kalendae „the Kalends”. Otherwise, the use of C spread at the expense of the other two letters. The persistence of Q in its single environment is hard to explain…
Originally posted by Arjuna34
I was under the impression that the letter K was only used by the Romans with certain words imported from Greek, and that kalenda was one of those. I don’t think any „native” Latin words used K- instead, as mentioned in the OP, C was used (and was always a hard C). No, all the Greek loanwords with kappa were spelled with C in Latin. All of them, without exception. The word kalendae is native Latin, not a Greek loanword. The suggestion that it was a useful abreviation for bookkeepers or whatever sounds like it may be plausible. The reason for the OP is that if the Romans hadn’t kept using the letter K for just this one word, it would have long ago disappeared into oblivion and we wouldn’t have it today. Look how useful it is (for non-Romance languages), especially in phonetic transcriptions where you need to unambiguously indicate the /k/ sound; „c” is hopeless for that, since it has taken on so many different pronunciations:
/k/ in cat
/s/ in celery
/t$/ in Pacino
/ts/ (as used in Slavic languages, Hungarian, and Pinyin)
/ð/ (as used in Fijian)
/dZ/ (as used in Turkish)
Arjuna, I believe you are quite correct.
C’s were, btw, all originally pronounced like K’s in Latin. Only after about the 1st century BCE did the Latin speakers begin to pronounce ci and ce like si and se.


Ősi magyar rovásemlékek, ancient hungarian runic artifacts

Винчанска култура – vinča culture

Lecture by Theo van den Hout: A is for Anatolia. Writing and Literacy in the Hittite Kingdom

Ancient Etruscan Deciphered (Vol. I): Lost Tomb of Alexander the Great

New Discovery Of The Oldest Civilization On Earth Existed In Iran ( Persia )

Danube valley civilization script is the oldest writing in the world
History would have to be rewritten

This documentary is the story about a brilliant scientist, whose theory shatters everything we know about the history of humanity. But conservative historians refuse to accept his idea, that people in the Stone Age already used writing to communicate. They wait for the ultimate proof. We accompany Harald Haarmann on his quest for the evidence: the oldest sentence ever written! He is going to investigate the latest discoveries and also the most astonishing artifacts, covered in writing.

The Mystery of the Danube Script is also a journey through the wild and untouched nature of the Balkans, where the people of the Danube Civilization lived. From the steep and rocky Danube Valley, to the picturesque landscape of Transylvania, down to the golden shore of the Black Sea.

A History of Hebrew Part 1: The purpose of a translation

A History of Hebrew Part 2: The original language

A History of Hebrew Part 3: The inadequacy of a translation

A History of Hebrew Part 4: Old Hebrew and Samaritan

A History of Hebrew Part 5: Old Hebrew and Phoenician

A History of Hebrew Part 6: Old Hebrew Discoveries

A History of Hebrew Part 7: Old Hebrew to Greek and Aramaic

A History of Hebrew Part 8: The Proto-Semitic Alphabet

A History of Hebrew Part 9: Dating the Semitic Alphabet

A History of Hebrew Part 10: The Hebrew Root System

A History of Hebrew Part 11: The Biliteral Roots

A History of Hebrew Part 12: The Alphabet and Language Connection

A History of Hebrew Part 13: The Culture and Language Connection

A History of Hebrew Part 14: The Agricultural aspect of the Hebrew Language

A History of Hebrew Part 15: The history of the language

A History of Hebrew Part 16: East and West

A History of Hebrew Part 17: Abstract and Concrete

A History of Hebrew Part 18: The Original Manuscripts

A History of Hebrew Part 19: The Dead Sea Scrolls

A History of Hebrew Part 20: The Aleppo Codex

A History of Hebrew Part 21: Ancient Translations

A History of Hebrew Part 22: Textual Criticism

A History of Hebrew Part 23: Conclusion