Archeologia (z gr. ἀρχαῖος archaīos – dawny, stary i -λογία -logiā – mowa, nauka) – nauka, której celem jest odtwarzanie społeczno-kulturowej przeszłości człowieka na podstawie znajdujących się w ziemi, na ziemi lub w wodzie źródeł archeologicznych, czyli materialnych pozostałości działań ludzkich.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of human activity in the past, primarily through the recovery and analysis of the material culture and environmental data that has been left behind by past human populations, which includes artifacts, architecture, biofacts (also known as eco-facts) and cultural landscapes (the archaeological record). Because archaeology employs a wide range of different procedures, it can be considered to be both a social science and a humanity, and in the United States, it is thought of as a branch of anthropology, although in Europe, it is viewed as a separate discipline.
Geneza i chronologia kultury ceramiki sznurowej w Europie
Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich, Polska Akademia Nauk. Instytut Historii Kultury Materialnej 1980
BETWEEN WEST AND EAST. PEOPLE OF THE GLOBULAR AMPHORA CULTURE IN EASTERN EUROPE: 2950-2350 BC Autor: Szmyt, Marzena
Click to access Kuzminareview.pdf
Full text of „The Origin of the Indo-Iranians”
The Origin of the Inao-Iranians
Elena E. Kuz’mina Edited byj.P. Mailory
The Gordion Archaeological Project
The British Museum Excavations at Nineveh, 1931-32 by R. Campbell Thompson; M. E. L. Mallowan
The Seima-Turbino Phenomenon and Mycenaeans
Сейминско-турбинская культура (середина II тыс. до н. э.)
Ancient Greek Armour, Shields and Helmets
SPAROTOK – ИСТИНСКАТА БЪЛГАРСКА ИСТОРИЯ
PAVEL SERAFIMOV – THE TRUE BULGARIAN HISTORY
Colleges Herstory of Art: preklassieke en klassieke kunst
Th first Great Civilizations of Europe: Cucuteni–Trypillia 5000–3000 BC + Vinca 6-3millennium BC = I2a in Haplogroup I
A Lost European Culture, Pulled From Obscurity
The Vinča Culture: (‚Old Europe’).
Where pastoralist met farmer and East met West (Spengler et al. 2014)
Early cattle management in NE China
View at Medium.com
Why everyone from the Mormons to the Muslim Brotherhood is desperate for a piece of the Pharaoh
The Shadow King: The Bizarre Afterlife of King Tut’s Mummy by Jo Marchant
At the Northern Frontier of Near Eastern Archaeology: Recent Research on Caucasia and Anatolia in the Bronze Age
Old Europe -The Danube Valley Civilization 5000-3500 BC
The people of this region founded new settlements in the Danube Valley. Scientists call this society Danube Civilization. This people were the first in history who used copper tools, they lived in two-storied houses and sat on chairs, while the rest of the world was stuck in the middle of the Stone Age. And they invented writing. Oldest copper mines of the world, bake bread using ovens that are 8000 years old.This culture lived 2000 years in peace as an equivalent society. But then, they discovered gold. This marks the end of the Danube Civilization. Warriors from the russian steppe extinguished this society 6000 years ago. The era of money and power began.The heart of Old Europe was in the lower Danube valley, in contemporary Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia and Moldova. Old European coppersmiths were the most advanced metal artisans in the world. Their intense interest in acquiring copper, Aegean shells, and other rare valuables gave rise to far-reaching trading networks. In their graves, the bodies of Old European chieftains were adorned with pounds of gold and copper ornaments. Their funerals were without parallel in the Near East or Egypt.
An unparalleled introduction to Old Europe’s cultural, technological, and artistic legacy,For 1,500 years, starting earlier than 5000 B.C., they farmed and built sizable towns, a few with as many as 10,000 dwellings. They mastered large-scale copper smelting, the new technology of the age. Their graves held an impressive array of exquisite headdresses and necklaces and, in one cemetery, the earliest major assemblage of gold artifacts to be found anywhere in the world.
The striking designs of their pottery speak of the refinement of the culture’s visual language. Until recent discoveries, the most intriguing artifacts were the ubiquitous terracotta „goddess” figurines, originally interpreted as evidence of the spiritual and political power of women in society.
At its peak, around 4500 B.C., said David W. Anthony, the exhibition’s guest curator, „Old Europe was among the most sophisticated and technologically advanced places in the world” and was developing „many of the political, technological and ideological signs of civilization.”
Винчанска култура – vinča culture
The Lost World of Old Europe: The Danube Valley, 5000 3500 BC
Europe’s origins lay in a cooperative peaceful neolithic culture
Prehistoric ring enclosures in the North Caucasus and their European parallels
Belinskij, Andrej B. (GUP Nasledie – Russia) – Faßbinder, Jörg (Department für Geo- und Umweltwissenschaften Geophysik, Universität München – Germany) – Reinhold, Sabine (Deutsches Archäologisches Institut – Germany)
The implementation of remote sensing technologies to detect archaeological objects, which traditional field walking methods fail to identify in the North Caucasus, has led to the discovery of a completely new spectrum of sites. Among them are huge ring enclosures, which share an identical construction with internal ditches and surrounding walls. The diameter of these ring enclosures varies between 60 to 200 meters. At the moment more than 20 sites have been identified, which even though the objects are mostly still visible on the ground were not recognised as prehistoric sites. Since 2010 preliminary investigation of these rings was started in an international program by GUP ‘Nasledie’, Stavropol’ region (Russia), Eurasia Department DAI and LMU Munich (Germany). Meanwhile eight enclosures are measured using a Cesium SM4G magnetometer with total configuration. Beside the walls and ditches, no further structures have been discovered inside the enclosures. Thus they are certainly no settlement sites. Microtopographic plans prepared with differential GPS Leica 900/1200 allow modelling the magnetometry plans in 3D, giving an impression on the topography. A first test trench in a ditch revealed mixed filing, which included Majkop, Koban and Sarmatian ceramic fragments. By shape, size, layout, and missing of settlements features inside, however, the Caucasian rings closely resemble European ‘rondels’ from the Late Neolithic. Such are mainly known in Germany, Austria, Hungary and Slovakia. Yet, the enclosures likewise resemble structures such as Avebury in Great Britain. Further investigations must proof the chronological position of these structures, which are perhaps the most Eastern aspects of a pan-European phenomenon.
Lost Worlds – Enigma Of The Etruscans (part one)
Lost Worlds – Enigma Of The Etruscans (part two)
Lost Worlds – Enigma Of The Etruscans (part three)
Cucuteni A Civilization Older Than Mesopotamia – Extraordinary Practice of House Burning HD
Славянская Цивилизация. Трипольская культура
Аркаим – протогород славянской культуры ариев – часть 1
Аркаим – протогород славянской культуры ариев – часть 2
Странное дело. Город уходит в небо
LEPENSKI VIR i VINCA (epoha Neolita)
In Focus: Lepenski Vir
Lepenski Vir is a Mesolithic site – that means middle stone age, in this case 8 000 years before the present, after the ice had begun to melt from the glaciers which covered so much of the Northern Hemisphere. It is an open air site, not a rock shelter. It is noted for the trapezoidal houses which had one of the first types of concrete as their foundations. They inhabitants ate fish, aurochs, deer and water birds. Professor Dragoslav Srejović excavated the site of Lepenski Vir. The prehistoric settlement was built on the sunny right bank of the Danube, between the steep slopes of the Koršo hills and the spring high water mark on the low porphyritic rocks which stretch down to the river.
Professor Dragoslav Srejović (1931 – 1996) discovered and excavated the sites of Lepenski Vir and Vlasać.
Horseback Riding and Bronze Age Pastoralism in the Eurasian Steppes
David Anthony, Early Indo-European migrations, economies, and phylogenies
Greece and Asia in the Late Bronze Age: The Historical Background of Homer’s Iliad
Secrets Of The Aegean Apocalypse
HIST 180 Lecture 8: Collapse of the Late Bronze Age: 1200-1100 BCE
The documentary Artifacts Of The Lost Global Civilization presents a distorted picture of American prehistory. The archaeological evidence presented to support notions of ancient pre-Columbian contact consists of long-discredited frauds.
Balkan (Old Europe)
Secrets Of The Stone Age – The Human Story
Secrets Of The Stone Age – Frozen In Time
Secrets Of The Stone Age – The Wisdom Of The Stones
The Indus Valley Civilisation of India and Pakistan – 2006 – FULL LENGTH
DRAVIDIAN ORIGINS OF INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATIONS
The Mysteries of Black Sea Atlantis – The hidden knowledge of Varna Civilization.
The Black Sea Flood – Top 10 Natural Disasters
Evidence suggests the world map was redrawn by a mega flood of a biblical proportions about 9 thousand years ago. The area now covered by the Black Sea was once home to one of the largest populations at the time. Presented by oceanographer Dr. Simon Boxall and Hristo Smolenov, PhD in logic and heuristics.
Documentary Dark Secrets of the Black Sea Uncovering the Roots of Early Civilization
Ancient Civilization of Europe ╍ THE ILLYRIANS.
The Illyrians were a group of Indo-European tribes who inhabited Balkans in antiquity and the south-eastern coasts of the Italian peninsula (Messapia).1000 BC. United by a common Illyrian language, of which only small fragments are attested enough to classify it as a branch of Indo-European, while it was extinct by the 2nd century A.D. The Illyrians were mentioned for the last time in the Miracula Sancti Demetrii during the 7th century.
Sumer, The first Civilization from Wikipedia
Revolutions: The Age of Metal and the Evolution of European Civilization
The evolution of agricultural villages in Europe, from their beginning in the Neolithic through their fluorescence during the Bronze Age, is the subject of this illustrated lecture. Historically, scholars assumed that most innovations, including in metallurgy, occurred earlier in the Near East and only later moved into the European continent. Advances in absolute dating and other research techniques prove otherwise.
The Dacians Romania’s ancestors Ancient Dacia documentary
The Gold of the Thracians
The Thracians, a Hidden History – HD 2013
The Thracians (Ancient Greek: Θρᾷκες, Latin: Thraci) were a group of Indo-European tribes inhabiting a large area in Central and Southeastern Europe. They were bordered by the Scythians to the north, the Celts and the Illyrians to the west, the Ancient Greeks to the south and the Black Sea to the east. They spoke the Thracian language — a scarcely attested branch of the Indo-European language family. The study of Thracians and Thracian culture is known as Thracology. The first historical record about the Thracians is found in the Iliad, where they are described as allies of the Trojans in the Trojan War against the Greeks. The ethnonym Thracian comes from Ancient Greek Θρᾷξ (plural Θρᾷκες; Thrax, Thrakes) or Θρᾴκιος/Ionic: Θρηίκιος (Thrakios/Thrēikios), and the toponym Thrace comes from Θρᾴκη/Ion.: Θρῄκη (Thrakē/Threkē). Both names are exonyms developed by the Greeks.
HIST 180 Lecture 7: Hittites