Y Chromosomes of 40% Chinese Are Descendants of Three Neolithic Super-grandfathers
!!!R’s in Han Chinese are mostly R1a1-M17. The separation events of R1 and R2, and R1a and R1b are estimated here at 19.9 and 14.8 kya, respectively. R1b roamed till the Atlantic coast, forming some of the non-Indo-European groups (e.g. Basque)!!!
!!!The haplogroup R1b1a2 arose about 9.500 years ago in the surrounding area of the Black Sea. The migration of this haplogroup into Europe started at the earliest with the spread of agriculture since 7.000 BC. It is ver probable that it is also connected to the Indoeuropeans who spread over Europe a little later in several waves of migrations.!!!
Maria Grazia said…
Some Egiptians (6%) are R1b1a. Actually R1b1a is spread over all in northern and central Africa, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_R1b_%28Y-DNA%29
Generally, it’s wrong believe that R1b is exclusively European. Some types of R1b are European, other types aren’t.
The origin of the R1b haplogroup is indeed controversial, with a high chance to originate in the Western Africa, from where it spread to Spain and Western Europe. It is possible to have stayed in Spain during the Last Glaciar Period and after the ice melted, spread North occupying Western Europe, and from there moved to Eastern Europe. This hypothesis make sense, because of the higher percentage of the R1b haplogroup in Western Europe, and the declining toward Eastern Europe and Asia. The small amount of R1b in Egypt might be since the Roman times, but we will know from sure, only after they will compare it with the Western African and Western European haplogroup. Still, this is not a proof that king Tut had the R1b haplogroup, since king Tut is not a mixed person and doesn’t have features of other races who could have the R1b, like the Western Europeans or like the Western Africans.
I have been in personal communication with an individual that published the last few articles with Hawass. This would include the 18th dynasty paper with JAMA as well as the BMJ article detailing Ramesses III’s E1b1a lineage.(…)
In recent years, DNA analysis has shed light on the parents of Egypt’s most famous pharaoh, the boy king Tutankhamun, known to the world as King Tut. Genetic investigation identified his father as Akhenaten and his mother as Akhenaten’s sister, whose name was unknown. French Egyptologist Marc Gabolde offered a different interpretation of the DNA evidence. Speaking at Harvard’s Science Center, Gabolde said he’s convinced that Tut’s mother was not his father’s sister, but rather his father’s first cousin, Nefertiti.(…)
R1a and R1b as markers of the Proto-Indo-European expansion: a review of ancient DNA evidence
Y-DNA haplogroup R1a is arguably the best candidate for a genetic signal of the Proto-Indo-Europeans, who are thought to have expanded across Eurasia during the Copper Age. It’s been characterized as such in several academic papers during the past 15 years, and the theory now looks more plausible than ever thanks to recent discoveries about its structure and phylogeography (for example, see here – http://polishgenes.blogspot.com.au/2013/01/new-r1a1a-tree.html and here – http://eurogenes.blogspot.com.au/2012/10/first-official-attempt-to-divide-r1a1.html). Moreover, it’s been found in numerous ancient remains supposedly belonging to early Indo-Europeans.
R1a’s brother clade, R1b, has also been proposed as a marker of the Proto-Indo-European dispersals, mostly by hobby genetic genealogists on various online forums. Among other things, they argue that it shows a high correlation with the so called Centum Indo-European languages, and probably expanded rapidly across Europe at exactly the right time (ie. during and/or after the Copper Age). However, there are also several problems with this theory, such as the fact that R1b is the dominant Y-DNA haplogroup in one of Europe’s few non-Indo-European speaking groups, the Basques. (…)
April 20, 2013 at 1:03 AM Davidski said…
I don’t know how and when R1b first entered Europe, but it’s unlikely that it came from the steppe, because there’s not a single R1b in any of the ancient samples from Siberia, the Altai and western China, where R1a dominates. In any case, wherever it came from, it definitely expanded from Western Europe during the Copper Age with the Bell Beaker culture.
„It seems likely to me that lactase persistence originated somewhere in western or southwestern Asia. One reason for thinking that is the relatively high levels of the main European LP SNP, T 13910, among the Fulani of Mali in Africa. The Fulani also have a high frequency of the y-dna haplogroup R1b-V88, which probably split from the rest of R1b-P25 somewhere in west Asia. R1b of any kind is relatively rare in Africa, but it is dominant in western and especially northwestern Europe.”
Massive migration from the steppe was a source for Indo-European languages in Europe
Wolfgang Haak et al.
The Upper Palaeolithic site of Kalavan 1 (Armenia): An Epigravettian
settlement in the Lesser Caucasus
Central European Epi-Gravettian and Eastern Gravettian Cultures of the Ukraine
N. P. Olenkowski (Cherson, Ukraine)