275 Tzw. kultura Warna i początki obróbki metali… europejskie początki… nie tylko tego z resztą!

In Focus: Varna

The Lost Aurolithic Civilization Of Varna HD – The Black Sea Atlantis Documentary

Varna Archaeological Museum:: Eneolithic Necropolis – Varna

!!!UWAGA!!!
W 2,55 minucie tego filmu ukazany jest ryt jeźdźca na koniu (z włócznią?)!!! Ktoś wie, ile setek lat ten wizerunek jest wcześniejszy od datowania udomowienia konia…?!!

The First Civilization in Europe and the Oldest Gold in the World – Varna, Bulgaria 5th millenn. BC

!!!UWAGA!!!
Pod koniec tego filmu jest mowa o substancji zwanej „elektron”, czyli połączeniu złota i srebra!!!

VARNA Prima Europaea

Revolutions: The Age of Metal and the Evolution of European Civilization

Opublikowany 22.07.2013
Revolutions: The Age of Metal and the Evolution of European Civilization
William Parkinson

Membership Lecture, The New Mexico History Museum Auditorium
Thursday, December 1, 2011, 6:30 pm-7:30 pm

The evolution of agricultural villages in Europe, from their beginning in the Neolithic through their fluorescence during the Bronze Age, is the subject of this illustrated lecture. Historically, scholars assumed that most innovations, including in metallurgy, occurred earlier in the Near East and only later moved into the European continent. Advances in absolute dating and other research techniques prove otherwise.

Ten wpis nawiązuje do dwóch poprzednich wpisów poświęconych poszukiwaniu źródeł powstania kultury i tradycji tzw. Sumerów i ich wierzeń, mitów, itd,..

https://skribh.wordpress.com/2016/03/05/271-zagadka-pieczeci-sumeryjskiej-a-zrodla-tradycji-pustynnej-czyli-kto-od-kogo-i-co-kopiowal-01/

https://skribh.wordpress.com/2016/03/10/274-zagadka-pieczeci-sumeryjskiej-a-zrodla-tradycji-pustynnej-czyli-kto-od-kogo-i-co-kopiowal-02/

…ale jest ich tak jakby technicznym uzupełnieniem i rozszerzeniem do tego poszukiwania początków, w tym przypadku do początku wydobycia i obróbki metali, koła garncarskiego, koła, wozu itd… a także powstania tzw. Mitu o potopie, a czemu w całości będzie poświęcony następny wpis.

Pragnę upowszechnić trochę źródeł powiązanych z tymi zagadnieniami, bo nie wiem, czy ktoś słyszał o tym, ale wygląda na to, (odmiennie od tego, co upowszechniają oficjalne źródła, jak np. wikipedia itp), że pierwszeństwo w tym wszystkim ma Europa, a dokładnie jej południowy skrawek, czyli miejsce zwane dziś Bałkanami i pradawne kultury archeologiczne tam odnajdywane, jak np. kultura Warna, z jej obróbką złota itd.

Proszę zapoznać się ze zgromadzonymi tu źródłami, bo na sam koniec, w nawiązaniu do nich, jak i do następnego wpisu, zadaję jedno pytanie…

First Civilization in Europe and World’s First Gold, Varna


A burial at Varna, with some of the world’s oldest gold jewellery.

The Mysteries of Black Sea Atlantis – The hidden knowledge of Varna Civilization.

Dark Secrets of the Black Sea – Uncovering Lost Civilization – FEATURE

Civilization Lost

The early civilizations of Europe: Varna 4600 – 4000 BC

Varna Archaeological Museum – Gold Artefacts

https://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kultura_Warna
Kultura Warna – neolityczna kultura nazwana od cmentarzyska Warna we wschodniej Bułgarii.

Obejmowała swym zasięgiem obszary położone od ujścia Dunaju do gór Stradża. Rozwój tej jednostki kulturowej miał miejsce w 2 połowie V tysiąclecia p.n.e. Inwentarz ceramiczny składał się z naczynia wykonywanych na kole garncarskim i malowanych przed wypaleniem; ceramika miała tak wysoki poziom technologiczny, że sugeruje to istnienie w strukturze społecznej grupy rzemieślników-garncarzy. O równie wysokim stopniu zaawansowania w produkcji metalurgicznej poświadczają odkrycia z kopalni Aibunar. W inwentarzach kamiennych poświadczona jest obecność przęślików co może sugerować rozwój tkactwa. Osady lokalizowane były w pobliżu lagun, gdzie konstrukcje mieszkalne wznoszono na wbitych w dno palach, lub wznoszone na tellach lokalizowanych na pobliskich wyspach np. stanowisko Durankulak. Ludność zajmowała się głównie uprawą pszenicy, jęczmienia, poświadczona jest także hodowla kóz, owiec i bydła.

Bibliografia

  • Janusz K. Kozłowski, Wielka Historia Świata, t. II Od „rewolucji” neolitycznej do podbojów Aleksandra Wielkiego, Fogra, Kraków 2004.
  • Janusz K. Kozłowski, Archeologia Prahistoryczna, t. I Starsza Epoka Kamienia, Nakładem Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego, Kraków 1972.
  • Piotr Kaczanowski, Janusz K. Kozłowski, Wielka Historia Polski , t.1 Najdawniejsze dzieje ziem polskich (do VII w.), Fogra, Kraków 1998.
  • Janusz K. Kozłowski (opracowanie naukowe), Encyklopedia historyczna świata, t. I Prehistoria, Agencja Publicystyczno-Wydawnicza Opres, Kraków 1999.
  • Bolesław Ginter, Janusz K. Kozłowski, Technika obróbki i typologia wyrobów kamiennych paleolitu, mezolitu i neolitu (wyd. III), PWN, Warszawa 1990.
  • J.Desmond Clark, Prahistoria Afryki, PWN, Warszawa 1978.

Zobacz też

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Varna_culture
The Varna culture belongs to the late Chalcolithic of northeastern Bulgaria. It is conventionally dated between 4400-4100 BC. It is contemporary and closely related with Gumelnițain southern Rumania, often considered as local variants.

It is characterized by polychrome pottery and rich cemeteries, the most famous of which are Varna Necropolis, the eponymous site, and the Durankulak complex, which comprises the largest prehistoric cemetery in southeastern Europe, with an adjoining coeval Neolithic settlement (published) and an unpublished and incompletely excavated Chalcolithicsettlement.

294 graves have been found in the necropolis, many containing sophisticated examples of copper and gold metallurgy, pottery (about 600 pieces, including gold-painted ones), high-quality flint and obsidian blades, beads, and shells. The site was accidentally discovered in October 1972 by excavator operator Raycho Marinov. Research excavation was under the direction of Mihail Lazarov and Ivan Ivanov. About 30% of the estimated necropolis area is still not excavated.

The findings showed that the Varna culture had trade relations with distant lands, possibly including the lower Volga region and the Cyclades, perhaps exporting metal goods and saltfrom the Provadiya rock salt mine. The copper ore used in the artifacts originated from a Sredna Gora mine near Stara Zagora, and Mediterranean spondylus shells found in the graves may have served as primitive currency.

Burial rites


A burial at Varna, with some of the world’s oldest gold jewellery.

Burials at Varna have some of the world’s oldest gold jewelry. There are crouched and extended inhumations. Some graves do not contain askeleton, but grave gifts (cenotaphs). Interestingly, the symbolic (empty) graves are the richest in gold artifacts. 3000 gold artifacts were found, with a weight of approximately 6 kilograms. Grave 43 contained more gold than has been found in the entire rest of the world for that epoch. Three symbolic graves contained masks of unfired clay.

Religion

The culture had sophisticated religious beliefs about afterlife and developed hierarchical status differences: it constitutes the oldest known burial evidence of an elite male. The end of the fifth millennium BC is the time that Marija Gimbutas, founder of the Kurgan hypothesis claims the transition to male dominance began in Europe. The high status male was buried with remarkable amounts of gold, held a war axe ormace and wore a gold penis sheath. The bull-shaped gold platelets perhaps also venerated virility, instinctive force, and warfare. Gimbutas holds that the artifacts were made largely by local craftspeople.

Decline

The discontinuity of the Varna, Karanovo[disambiguation needed], Vinča and Lengyel cultures in their main territories and the large scale population shifts to the north and northwest are indirect evidence of a catastrophe of such proportions that cannot be explained by possibleclimatic change, desertification, or epidemics. Direct evidence of the incursion of horse-riding warriors is found, not only in single burials of males under barrows, but in the emergence of a whole complex of Indo-European cultural traits. The original term for: ‚Castes’ in India was: ‚Varna’, meaning: ‚Color’, cognate to French: ‚Vernis’, and Spanish: ‚Barniz’ (both= Varnish).

!!!UWAGA!!!

WaRNa
BaRWa
BaRWNiK
BaRWiC’/T’
FaRBA

WaRNa
WaR”eNie
WaR”yC’/T’
WaR”oNa
WaRoWNa
WaRoWNia

WaGa
WaZ”eNie
WaZ”Na

WoZ
WoZiC’/T’
WoZN+iCa

WaRT
WaRTa
WaRT+oS’C’/T’
WaRT+oS’C/TioWy
WaRT+oWNia
WaRT+oWNiK…

GaR, GaRNieC, GaRNeK, Z”aR / R”aR,.. R”/Z”aRNa, R”/Z”ReC’/T’…

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Varna culture.

External links

References

  • Khenrieta Todorova, The eneolithic period in Bulgaria in the fifth millennium B.C. Oxford : British Archaeological Reports, 1978. BAR supplementary series 49.
  • Henrieta Todorova, Kupferzeitliche Siedlungen in Nordostbulgarien. München: Beck 1982. Materialien zur allgemeinen und vergleichenden Archäologie 13.

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Varna_culture

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Varna_Necropolis

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Varna_Necropolis

http://www.thefreelibrary.com/New+perspectives+on+the+Varna+cemetery+%28Bulgaria%29–AMS+dates+and…-a0169923796

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prehistory_of_the_Balkans

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Europe_%28archaeology%29

http://www.ancient-origins.net/ancient-places-europe/varna-man-and-wealthiest-grave-5th-millennium-bc-002798

http://www.pacmusee.qc.ca/en/exhibitions/varna-worlds-first-gold-ancient-secrets

http://www.anistor.gr/english/enback/o033.htm

http://thehistoryofeuropepodcast.blogspot.co.uk/2012/05/victorious-varna-culture.html

http://www.academia.edu/440776/New_Perspectives_on_the_Varna_Cemetery_Bulgaria_-AMS_Dates_and_Social_Implications

http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/01/science/01arch.html?_r=0

http://forwhattheywereweare.blogspot.co.uk/2012/10/claim-oldest-european-city-in-bulgaria.html

http://www.ancient-origins.net/ancient-places-europe/varna-man-and-wealthiest-grave-5th-millennium-bc-002798

http://oldeuropeanculture.blogspot.co.uk/2015_07_01_archive.html

http://www.unexplained-mysteries.com/forum/index.php?showtopic=188973

https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=sDYXosqZpegC&pg=PA456&lpg=PA456&dq=varna+culture&source=bl&ots=rx6DKDUq1m&sig=3Bc3w_eMAiWWqH5I0v9BsjgXtUI&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj9gcm8mbfLAhUIbBoKHYcYD9E4HhDoAQhEMAY#v=onepage&q=varna%20culture&f=false
The Black Sea Flood Question: Changes in Coastline, Climate and Human Settlement
Valentina Yanko-Hombach, Allan S. Gilbert, Nicolae Panin, Pavel M. Dolukhanov
Springer Science & Business Media, 15 Nov 2006 – Science – 971 pages

Stimulated by „Noah’s Flood Hypothesis” proposed by W. Ryan and W. Pitman in which a catastrophic inundation of the Pontic basin was linked to the biblical story, leading experts in Black Sea research (including oceanography, marine geology, paleoclimate, paleoenvironment, archaeology, and linguistic spread) provide overviews of their data and interpretations obtained through empirical scientific approaches. Among the contributors are many East European scientists whose work has rarely been published outside of Cyrillic. Each of the 35 papers marshals its own evidence for or against the flood hypothesis. No summary or overall resolution to the flood question is presented, but instead access is provided to a broad range of interdisciplinary information that crosses previously impenetrable language barriers so that new work in the region can proceed with the benefit of a wider frame of reference. The three fundamental scenarios describing the late glacial to Holocene rise in the level of the Black Sea—catastrophic, gradual, and oscillating—are presented in the early pages, with the succeeding papers organized by geographic sector: northern (Ukraine), western (Moldova, Romania, and Bulgaria), southern (Turkey), and eastern (Georgia and Russia), as well as three papers on the Mediterranean. The volume thus brings together eastern and western scholarship to share research findings and perspectives on a controversial subject. In addition, appendices are included containing some 600 radiocarbon dates from the Pontic region obtained by USSR and western laboratories.

https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=e75T03MIp3sC&pg=PA534&lpg=PA534&dq=varna+culture&source=bl&ots=bj31JL1fCK&sig=GNxiKAHAI230bLyUnMZAQW-MPEA&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiB6cSsmrfLAhWK2xoKHXlyD904KBDoAQgjMAI#v=onepage&q=varna%20culture&f=false
History of Humanity: Prehistory and the beginnings of civilization
Sigfried J. de Laet
Taylor & Francis, 1994 – Civilization – 716 pages

All historiography is ‚work in progress’ and the study of the history of humanity has undergone considerable changes since the publication of UNESCO’s History of Mankind. After almost fifteen years of intensive work, it is UNESCO Publishing’s privilege to present an entirelyrevised and updated edition of this major work. The new edition, now called History of Humanity, is a radical new work providing an account of cultural and scientific achievements in the light of new facts and methods of historiographical investigation. This major undertaking required an International Commission and the cooperation of some 450 distinguished specialists, in a great number of disciplines, from all over the world. A truly interdisciplinary work, the History of Humanity sheds new light on many hitherto unknown features of our common past. Forty internationally renowned specialists from various countries provide a broad introduction to the study of the eve of civilization. Starting from the origins of humankind to the first societies 5,000 years ago, the events, chronologically charted, present a comprehensive picture of how civilization emerged and developed over this period. Particular attention is given to archaeological aspects.

https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=2PAkBwAAQBAJ&pg=PA246&lpg=PA246&dq=varna+culture&source=bl&ots=HTafRytCOz&sig=xjRRZ7qiM2F01U69ULgQWnQrJeQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiB6cSsmrfLAhWK2xoKHXlyD904KBDoAQgmMAM#v=onepage&q=varna%20culture&f=false
The Oxford Handbook of Neolithic Europe
Chris Fowler, Jan Harding, Daniela Hofmann
OUP Oxford, 26 Mar 2015 – History – 1200 pages

The Neolithic – a period in which the first sedentary agrarian communities were established across much of Europe – has been a key topic of archaeological research for over a century. However, the variety of evidence across Europe and the way research traditions in different countries (and languages) have developed makes it very difficult for both students and specialists to gain an overview of continent-wide trends. The Oxford Handbook of Neolithic Europe provides the first comprehensive, geographically extensive, thematic overview of the European Neolithic – from Iberia to Russia and from Norway to Malta – offering both a general introduction and a clear exploration of key issues and current debates surrounding evidence and interpretation. Chapters written by leading experts in the field examine topics such as the movement of plants, animals, ideas, and people (including recent trends in theapplication of genetics and isotope analyses); cultural change (from the first farming to the first metal artefacts); domestic architecture; subsistence; material culture; monuments; and burial and other treatments of the dead. In doing so, the volume also considers the history of research and sets out agendasand themes for future work in the field.

https://chiefio.wordpress.com/2012/03/30/an-ancient-european-culture-rediscovered/

http://www.talanta.nl/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/Zanotti-77-104.pdf
!!!UWAGA!!!
Proszę zwrócić na podobieństwa w ceramice do tej z tzw. Sumeru, a dokładnie z tzw. okresu Ubajd i Halaf, np. wzór swastyki, czyli kołowrotu!!!

http://realhistoryww.com/world_history/ancient/Dobruja_Thrace_1.htm
!!!UWAGA!!!
Ciekawe zdjęcia, ale ta strona chyba upowszechnia pogląd, że murzyni byli w Europie… a tzw. biali to murzyni, tyle że albinosi…

http://archaeologyinbulgaria.com/2015/10/15/bulgaria-showcases-worlds-oldest-gold-varna-chalcolithic-necropolis-treasure-in-european-parliament-in-brussels/

http://www.su-varna.org/izdanij/2015/The%20Chalcolithic%20Civilisation%20in%20Varna.pdf

http://be-ja.org/issues/2013-3-1/Be-JA_3-1_2013_31-66.pdf
Are the ‘new’ AMS Varna dates older?

http://culturaltours-bg.com/sites/treasures-of-ancient-civilizations-from-bulgarian-lands/treasures-from-chalcolithic-necropolis-varna/

Pre-Dacian and Dacian Culture – Intro

Przesłany 26.12.2011
Pre-Dacians and Dacians artifacts presented in chronological order
Artefactele pre-dacice si dacice sunt prezentate in ordine cronologica

Pre-Dacian and Dacian Art Intro p. 2

Pre-Dacian and Dacian Culture Intro p.3

…..

http://www.cimec.ro/arheologie/gumelnita/gumelnita_engl/3arii/4Sudul/Gumelnita_in_%20Dobrogea.htm

http://www.cimec.ro/arheologie/gumelnita/gumelnita_engl/3arii/4Sudul/foto/insula/index.htm

http://www.cimec.ro/arheologie/gumelnita/gumelnita_engl/3arii/4Sudul/foto/sapatura/index.htm

http://www.cimec.ro/arheologie/gumelnita/gumelnita_engl/3arii/4Sudul/foto/piese/index.htm

https://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kultura_starczewska

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Star%C4%8Devo_culture

LEPENSKI VIR i VINČA (najstarije civilizacije Evrope i Sveta, prapostojbina Srba)

https://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kultura_Vin%C4%8Da

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vin%C4%8Da_culture

Europe’s biggest prehistoric civilization: Vinča (Old Europe) 5,500–4,500 BC

The Danube Civilization , Old Europe ,Tartaria Tablets (full documentary)

Is the Danube Civilization script the oldest writing in the world?

https://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kultura_Cucuteni-Trypole

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cucuteni-Trypillian_culture

History of the Swastika – Mezine Old Europe Vinca Cucuteni Trypillian Greece Rome Celtic Germanic

Opublikowany 03.05.2015
The earliest swastika ever found was uncovered in Mezine, Ukraine. It is carved on late paleolithic figurine of mammoth ivory, being dated as early as about 10,000 BC. Among the earliest cultures utilizing swastika is the Old Europe, neolithic Danube Valley Civilization, Vinca, Cucuteni-Trypillian

In Bronze Age Europe, the „Sun cross” appears most frequently of all continents, often interpreted as a solar symbol. Swastika shapes have been found on numerous artifacts from Iron Age Europe (Greco-Roman, Illyrian, Etruscan, Baltic, Celtic, Germanic, Slavic and Georgian Borjgali).This prehistoric use seems to be reflected in the appearance of the symbol in various folk cultures of Europe. The symbol has been found on vessels in the ancient city of Troy, The evidence shows that it served as a symbol of fertility and life. Its similar use can be found in Trench Graves in Mycanae, Greece, on Athenian vases and even decorating the garments of Aphrodite, the Greek goddess of love. Also the Greek Parthenon had this symbol as a Greek design just like other designs.

Swastika is a definite European sign moving east into Indus Valley Civilization. It was brought by migrating tribes to India where it is revered in the religious and cultural life of the Indo-Aryans. It did not originate in the Indus Valley Civilization as some people thought.

…..

Tu „oficjalna fietza” dla porównania:

https://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ko%C5%82o_garncarskie
(…)
Historia i pochodzenie

Koło garncarskie znane było już w starożytnym Egipcie. Mitologia egipska podaje, iż pradawny bóg Górnego Egiptu Chnum, stwórca człowieka, ulepił go z gliny na kole garncarskim. Wierzenia te ukazują jak ważnym narzędziem było koło garncarskie i jakim szacunkiem darzono rzemiosło garncarskie w starożytnym Egipcie.

Na ziemie dzisiejszej Polski wynalazek koła garncarskiego przybył prawdopodobnie ok. 300 roku p.n.e. wraz z Celtami.

Najbardziej znane w Polsce stanowisko archeologiczne w którym znaleziono ceramikę wytwarzaną na kole garncarskim znajduje się w okolicach krakowskiej Nowej Huty.

Niektóre źródła pozwalają sądzić, że koło garncarskie wynalezione zostało około 3200 roku p.n.e. w Mezopotamii przez Sumerów.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potter%27s_wheel
(…)
Many modern scholars suggest that the first potter’s wheel was first developed in Mesopotamia. A stone potter’s wheel found at the Mesopotamian city of Ur in modern-day Iraq has been dated to about 3129 BC[citation needed], but fragments of wheel-thrown pottery of an even earlier date have been recovered in the same area.[2] However, southeast Europe[3] and China[4] have also been claimed as possible places of origin. Furthermore, the pottery wheel was also in popular use by potters starting around 3500 BCE in major cities of the Indus Valley Civilization in South Asia, namely Harappa and Mohenjo-daro (Kenoyer, 2005). Others consider Egypt as „being the place of origin of the potter’s wheel. It was here that the turntable shaft was lengthened about 3000bc and a flywheel added. The flywheel was kicked and later was moved by pulling the edge with the left hand while forming the clay with the right. This led to the counterclockwise motion for the potter’s wheel which is almost universal.”[5] Hence the exact origin of the potters wheel is not wholly clear yet.
(…)
Cucoș, Ștefan (1999). „Faza Cucuteni B în zona subcarpatică a Moldovei” [Cucuteni B period in the lower Carpathian region of Moldova]. Bibliotheca Memoriae antiquitatis (BMA) (Memorial Library antiquities) (in Romanian) (Piatra Neamț, Romania: Muzeul de Istorie Piatra Neamț (Historical Museum Piatra Neamț)) 6. OCLC 223302267.
(…)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wheel
(…)
History

The invention of the wheel falls into the late Neolithic, and may be seen in conjunction with other technological advances that gave rise to the early Bronze Age. Note that this implies the passage of several wheel-less millennia even after the invention of agriculture and of pottery:


A depiction of an onager-drawn cart on the Sumerian „battle standard of Ur” (c. 2500 BC)

The first evidence of wheeled vehicles appears in the second half of the 4th millennium BCE, near-simultaneously in Mesopotamia (Sumerian civilization), the Northern Caucasus (Maykop culture) and Central Europe, so the question of which culture originally invented the wheeled vehicle is still unsolved.

The earliest well-dated depiction of a wheeled vehicle (here a wagon — four wheels, two axles) is on the Bronocice pot, a c. 3500 – 3350 BCE clay pot excavated in a Funnelbeaker culture settlement in southern Poland.[3]

The oldest securely dated real wheel-axle combination, that from Stare Gmajne near Ljubljana in Slovenia (Ljubljana Marshes Wooden Wheel) is now dated in 2σ-limits to 3340-3030 BCE, the axle to 3360-3045 BCE.[4]

Two types of early Neolithic European wheel and axle are known; a circum Alpine type of wagon construction (the wheel and axle rotate together, as in Ljubljana Marshes Wheel), and that of the Baden culture in Hungary (axle does not rotate). They both are dated to c. 3200-3000 BCE.[5]
(…)

!!!UWAGA!!!
„6500–4500 BCE: Ceramic Neolithic (Halafian), earliest wooden wheels (disks with a hole for the axle)”

NIEPRAWDA!!! Najstarsze znalezione koło pochodzi z Europy i jest datowane na około 32.000 lat!!!

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sungir
Sungir (sometimes erroneously spelled Sunghir) is an Upper Paleolithic archaeological site in Russia and one of the earliest records of modern Homo sapiens in Europe. It is situated about two hundred kilometres east of Moscow, on the outskirts of Vladimir, near the Klyazma River. It is dated by calibrated carbon analysis to between 32,050 and 28,550 BC. Additional pollen finds suggest the relative warme spell of the „Greenland interstadial (GI) 5” [1] between the 305th and 301st centennia BCE as most probable dates.
(…)

http://donsmaps.com/sungaea.html
(…)
Ivory wheel from Sungir, possibly originally mounted on a spear. It may have had feathers or other decorations attached using the beautifully carved holes in the disk.


Photo: http://www.istmira.com/foto-i-video-pervobytnoe-obschestvo/3924-iskusstvo-predystorii-pervobytnost-2.html

https://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kultura_Halaf

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/71/Mesopotamia_Per%C3%ADodo_6.svg
Lokalizacja kultury Halaf

Kultura Halafchalkolityczna kultura archeologiczna, zlokalizowana w północnej Mezopotamii. Nazwa pochodzi od eponimicznegostanowiska Tell Halaf, gdzie po raz pierwszy zostały odkryte relikty charakterystyczne dla danej kultury. Jej trwanie przypada na okres od końca VI tysiąclecia p.n.e. do końca V tysiąclecia p.n.e.

Lokalizacja

Kultura Halaf rozwinęła się w północnej Mezopotamii nad Chaburem, prawym dopływem Eufratu[1] i objęła swoim zasięgiem obszary bogate w obsydian i miedź[2], zakreślone od zachodu syryjskim wybrzeżem Morza Śródziemnego, od północy sięgała Gerikihacijan w południowo-wschodniej Anatolii i Tilki Tepe nad jeziorem Wan, od południowego wschodu terenów w pobliżu Mosulu[3].


Figurki kobiet


Ceramika kultury Halaf

Historia odkrycia

W 1899 roku Max von Oppenheim uzyskał od mieszkańców Tell Halaf informację, że pod piaskiem na pobliskim wzgórzu znajdują się ruiny starożytnego osiedla. Prace archeologiczne Oppenheim rozpoczął w 1911 roku. Wykopaliska przerwała pierwsza wojna światowa, badania Oppenheima zostały sfinalizowane dopiero w latach 1927–1929[1]. W 1943 roku archeolog opublikował wyniki swoich odkryć. Zostały one później wzbogacone dzięki publikacjom Maxa Mallowana, który pracował przy wykopaliskach w Tell Arpaczija i udowodnił, że to stanowisko archeologiczne stanowiło pierwotne centrum kultury Halaf[2].

Charakterystyka

Ludność kultury Halaf zamieszkiwała przeważnie duże umocnione osady. Pomieszczenia mieszkalne budowano z suszonej cegły na planie prostokątnym, choć na wschodnich obszarach spotykane są domostwa na planie koła. Jedno z odkrytych pomieszczeń mieszkalnych posiadało przedsionek, który przeznaczony był na warsztat garncarski. Znaleziono w nim piec i wyroby ceramiczne. Obok warsztatu usytuowane było miejsce kultu. Wewnątrz znajdował się posążek Bogini Matki, przed którą znaleziono figurkę klęczącego mężczyzny oraz misę z darami wotywnymi. Na podstawie zaobserwowanego zwyczaju umieszczania przez późniejszych władców Mezopotamii własnych podobizn przed posągami bóstw przypuszcza się, że klęcząca figurka uosabiała uprzywilejowanego sługę bogini[4].

Ceramika najstarszych warstw kultury Halaf tworzona była bez użycia koła garncarskiego, ale była wypalana w zamykanych piecach, w których możliwa była regulacja temperatury, i zdobiona charakterystycznymi geometrycznymi lub w kształcie zwierząt, ludzi i ptaków ornamentami w barwach czarnych bądź czerwono-pomarańczowych[5]. Ceramika odkryta w młodszych warstwach wykonywana była na kole garncarskim[2].

Ludność kultury Halaf korzystała zarówno z narzędzi kamiennych, jak i miedzianych, znany był ołów i wóz kołowy, ciągnięty przez woły lub osły. Odnaleziono także wiele wisiorków kamiennych, które najprawdopodobniej wykorzystywano jako pieczęcie. Taki wniosek nasunął się po zbadaniu bryłek gliny z odciskami wisiorków i sznurków, którymi wiązano wory i kosze. Znalezisko ponadto stanowiło dowód na pojawienie się własności prywatnej[6].

Przypisy

  1. M. Bielicki, Zapomniany świat Sumerów, s. 45–46.
  2. Skocz do:a b c J. Zabłocka, Historia Bliskiego Wschodu w starożytności (od początku osadnictwa do podboju perskiego), s. 31.
  3. Skocz do góry J. Zabłocka, Historia Bliskiego Wschodu w starożytności (od początku osadnictwa do podboju perskiego), s. 30.
  4. Skocz do góry J. Zabłocka, Historia Bliskiego Wschodu w starożytności (od początku osadnictwa do podboju perskiego), s. 31–32.
  5. Skocz do góry M. Bielicki, Zapomniany świat Sumerów, s. 46.
  6. Skocz do góry J. Zabłocka, Historia Bliskiego Wschodu w starożytności (od początku osadnictwa do podboju perskiego), s. 32–33.

Bibliografia

  • Bielicki M., Zapomniany świat Sumerów, Warszawa 1966.
  • Zabłocka J., Historia Bliskiego Wschodu w starożytności (od początku osadnictwa do podboju perskiego), Wrocław 1982. ISBN 83-04-00710-X.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halaf_culture


Kultura Halaf (6100 p.n.e. – 5200 p.n.e.); Zasięg występowania i stanowiska archeologiczne.

Geographical range Mesopotamia
Period Neolithic 3 – Pottery Neolithic (PN)
Dates circa 6,100 B.C.E. — circa5,100 B.C.E.
Type site Tell Halaf
Major sites Tell Brak
Preceded by Pre-Pottery Neolithic B
Followed by Halaf-Ubaid Transitional period, Hassuna culture,Samarra culture

The Halaf culture is a prehistoric period which lasted between about 6100 and 5100 BCE.[1] The period is a continuous development out of the earlier Pottery Neolithic and is located primarily in south-eastern Turkey, Syria, and northern Iraq, although Halaf-influenced material is found throughout Greater Mesopotamia.

While the period is named after the site of Tell Halaf in north Syria, excavated by Max von Oppenheim between 1911 and 1927, the earliest Halaf period material was excavated by John Garstang in 1908 at the site of Sakce Gözü, then in Syria but now part of Turkey.[2] Small amounts of Halaf material were also excavated in 1913 by Leonard Woolley at Carchemish, on the Turkish/Syrian border.[3] However, the most important site for the Halaf tradition was the site of Tell Arpachiyah, now located in the suburbs of Mosul,Iraq.[4]

The Halaf period was succeeded by the Halaf-Ubaid Transitional period which comprised the late Halaf (c. 5400-5000 BC), and then by the Ubaid period.

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/60/Iraq_location_map.svg
Map of Iraq showing important sites that were occupied during the Halaf culture (clickable map)

Origin

Previously, the Syrian plains were not considered as the homeland of Halaf culture, and the Halafians were seen either as hill people who descended from the nearby mountains of southeastern Anatolia, or herdsmen from northern Iraq.[5] However, those views changed with the recent archaeology conducted since 1986 by Peter Akkermans, which have produced new insights and perspectives about the rise of Halaf culture.[6] A formerly unknown transitional culture between the pre-Half Neolithic‚s era and Halaf’s era was uncovered in the Balikh valley, at Tell Sabi Abyad (the Mound of the White Boy).

Currently, eleven occupational layers have been unearthed in Sabi Abyad. Levels from 11 to 7 are considered pre-Halaf; from 6 to 4, transitional; and from 3 to 1, early Halaf. No hiatus in occupation is observed except between levels 11 and 10.[5] The new archaeology demonstrated that Halaf culture was not sudden and was not the result of foreign people, but rather a continuous process of indigenous cultural changes in northern Syria,[7] that spread to the other regions.[1]

Culture

Architecture

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9c/Syrian_-%22Tel_Halaf%22_Fertility_FigurineWalters_482741-_Three_Quarter.jpg
Tel Halaf terracotta fertility figurine, 5000-4000 BC. Walters Museum

Although no Halaf settlement has been extensively excavated some buildings have been excavated: the tholoi of Tell Arpachiyah, circular domed structures approached through long rectangular anterooms. Only a few of these structures were ever excavated. They were constructed of mud-brick sometimes on stone foundations and may have been for ritual use (one contained a large number of female figurines). Other circular buildings were probably just houses.

Halaf pottery


Halafian ware

The best known, most characteristic pottery of Tell Halaf, called Halaf ware, produced by specialist potters, can be painted, sometimes using more than two colors (called polychrome) with geometric and animal motifs. Other types of Halaf pottery are known, including unpainted, cooking ware and ware with burnished surfaces. There are many theories about why the distinctive pottery style developed.

The theory is that the pottery came about due to regional copying and that it was exchanged as a prestige item between local elites is now disputed. The polychrome painted Halaf pottery has been proposed to be a „trade pottery”—pottery produced for export—however, the predominance of locally produced painted pottery in all areas of Halaf sites including potters settlement questions that theory.

Halaf pottery has been found in other parts of northern Mesopotamia, such as at Nineveh and Tepe Gawra, Chagar Bazar and at many sites in Anatolia (Turkey) suggesting that it was widely used in the region. In addition, the Halaf communities made female figurines of partially baked clay and stone and stamp seals of stone, (see also Impression seal). The seals are thought to mark the development of concepts of personal property, as similar seals were used for this purpose in later times. The Halaf people used tools made of stone and clay. Copper was also known, but was not used for tools.

Economy

Dryland farming was practiced by the population. This type of farming was based on exploiting natural rainfall without the help of irrigation, in a similar practice to that still practiced today by the Hopi people of Arizona. Emmer wheat, two-rowed barley and flax were grown. They kept cattle, sheep and goats.

Halaf’s end (Northern Ubaid)

Halaf culture ended by 5000 BC after entering the so called Halaf-Ubaid Transitional period.[8] Many Halafians settlements were abandoned, and the remaining ones showed Ubaidian characters.[9] The new period is named Northern Ubaid to distinguish it from the proper Ubaid in southern Mesopotamia,[10] and two explanations were presented for the transformation. The first maintain an invasion and a replacement of the Halafians by the Ubaidians, however, there is no hiatus between the Halaf and northern Ubaid which exclude the invasion theory.[9][11] The most plausible theory is a Halafian adoption of the Ubaid culture,[9] which is supported by most scholars including Oates, Breniquet and Akkermans.[10][11][12]

References

Citations

  1. ^ Jump up to:a b Mario Liverani (2013). The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. p. 48.
  2. Jump up^ Castro Gessner, G. 2011. „A Brief Overview of the Halaf Tradition” in Steadman, S and McMahon, G (eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Ancient anatolia. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 780
  3. Jump up^ Castro Gessner, G. 2011. „A Brief Overview of the Halaf Tradition” in Steadman, S and McMahon, G (eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Ancient anatolia. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 781
  4. Jump up^ Campbell, S. 2000. „The Burnt House at Arpachiyah: A Reexamination” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research no. 318. pp. 1
  5. ^ Jump up to:a b Maria Grazia Masetti-Rouault, Olivier Rouault, M. Wafler (2000). La Djéziré et l’Euphrate syriens de la protohistoire à la fin du second millénaire av. J.C, Tendances dans l’interprétation historique des données nouvelles, (Subartu) – Chapter : Old and New Perspectives on the Origins of the Halaf Culture by Peter Akkermans. pp. 43–44.
  6. Jump up^ Peter M. M. G. Akkermans, Glenn M. Schwartz (2003). The Archaeology of Syria: From Complex Hunter-Gatherers to Early Urban Societies (c.16,000-300 BC). p. 101.
  7. Jump up^ Peter M. M. G. Akkermans, Glenn M. Schwartz (2003). The Archaeology of Syria: From Complex Hunter-Gatherers to Early Urban Societies (c.16,000-300 BC). p. 116.
  8. Jump up^ John L. Brooke (2014). Climate Change and the Course of Global History: A Rough Journey. p. 204.
  9. ^ Jump up to:a b c Georges Roux (1992). Ancient Iraq. p. 101.
  10. ^ Jump up to:a b Susan Pollock,Reinhard Bernbeck (2009). Archaeologies of the Middle East: Critical Perspectives. p. 190.
  11. ^ Jump up to:a b Peter M. M. G. Akkermans, Glenn M. Schwartz (2003). The Archaeology of Syria: From Complex Hunter-Gatherers to Early Urban Societies (c.16,000-300 BC). p. 157.
  12. Jump up^ Robert J. Speakman,Hector Neff (2005). Laser Ablation ICP-MS in Archaeological Research. p. 128.

Bibliography

  • Akkermans, Peter M. M. G.; Schwartz, Glenn M. (2003). The Archaeology of Syria: From Complex Hunter-Gatherers to Early Urban Societies (c.16,000-300 BC). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-52179-666-8.
  • Liverani, Mario (2013). The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-75091-7.
  • Masetti-Rouault, Maria Grazia; Rouault, Olivier; Wafler, Markus (2000). La Djéziré et l’Euphrate syriens de la protohistoire à la fin du second millénaire av. J.C, Tendances dans l’interprétation historique des données nouvelles, (Subartu). Brepols. ISBN 978-2-50351-063-7.

External links

https://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Okres_Ubajd


Mapa Mezopotamii z zaznaczonym położeniem najważniejszych stanowisk okresu Ubajd w południowej Mezopotamii (Tall al-Ubajd, Eridu, Ur, Hadżi Muhammad, Tell ‚Oueili)


Ceramika kultury Ubajd; z Suzy w Iranie; zbiory Narodowego Muzeum CeramikiSèvres, Francja


Przykład naczynia z późnego okresu Ubajd; południowy Irak; zbiory Museum of Fine Arts w Bostonie

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sumer

Sumer (/ˈsmər/)[note 1] was the first ancient urban civilization in the historical region of southern Mesopotamia, modern-day southernIraq, during the Chalcolithic and Early Bronze ages, and arguably the first civilization in the world.[1]

Proto-writing in the region dates back to c. 3500 BC. The earliest texts come from the cities of Uruk and Jamdat Nasr and date back to 3,300BC; early cuneiform writing emerged in 3,000 BC.[2]

Modern historians have suggested that Sumer was first permanently settled between c. 5500 and 4000 BC by a pre-Semitic people who spoke the linguistically isolated Sumerian language (pointing to the names of cities, rivers, basic occupations, etc., as evidence).[3][4][5][6]

These conjectured, prehistoric people are now called „proto-Euphrateans” or „Ubaidians„,[7] and are theorized to have evolved from the Samarra culture of northern Mesopotamia (Assyria).[8][9][10][11] The Ubaidians (though never mentioned by the Sumerians themselves) are assumed by modern-day scholars to have been the first civilizing force in Sumer, draining the marshes for agriculture, developing trade, and establishing industries, including weaving, leatherwork, metalwork, masonry, and pottery.[7]

However, some scholars contest the idea of a Proto-Euphratean language or one substrate language. It has been suggested by them and others, that the Sumerian language was originally that of the hunter and fisher peoples, who lived in the marshland and the Eastern Arabia littoral region, and were part of the Arabian bifacial culture.[12] Reliable historical records begin much later; there are none in Sumer of any kind that have been dated before Enmebaragesi (c. 26th century BC). Professor Juris Zarins believes the Sumerians were settled along the coast of Eastern Arabia, today’s Persian Gulf region, before it flooded at the end of the Ice Age.[13]

Sumerian civilization took form in the Uruk period (4th millennium BC), continuing into the Jemdat Nasr and Early Dynastic periods. During the 3rd millennium BC, a close cultural symbiosis developed between the Sumerians (who spoke a language no relatives of which are known today; see language isolate) and the Semitic Akkadian speakers, which included widespread bilingualism.[14]Sumerian culture seems to have appeared as a fully formed civilization, with no pre-history.

The influence of Sumerian on Akkadian (and vice versa) is evident in all areas, from lexical borrowing on a massive scale, to syntactic,morphological, and phonological convergence.[14] This has prompted scholars to refer to Sumerian and Akkadian in the 3rd millennium BC as a Sprachbund.[14] Sumer was conquered by the Semitic-speaking kings of the Akkadian Empire around 2270 BC (short chronology), but Sumerian continued as a sacred language.

Native Sumerian rule re-emerged for about a century in the Neo-Sumerian Empire or Third Dynasty of Ur (Sumerian Renaissance) approximately 2100-2000 BC, but the Akkadian language also remained in use. The Sumerian city of Eridu, on the coast of the Persian Gulf, is considered to have been the world’s first city, where three separate cultures may have fused — that of peasant Ubaidian farmers, living in mud-brick huts and practicing irrigation; that of mobile nomadic Semitic pastoralists living in black tents and following herds of sheep and goats; and that of fisher folk, living in reed huts in the marshlands, who may have been the ancestors of the Sumerians.[15]

Origin of name

The term „Sumerian” is the common name given to the ancient non-Semitic inhabitants of Mesopotamia, Sumer, by the Semitic Akkadians. The Sumerians referred to themselves asùĝ saĝ gíg-ga (cuneiform: 𒌦 𒊕 𒈪 𒂵), phonetically uŋ saŋ giga, literally meaning „the black-headed people”, and to their land as ki-en-gi(-r) (‚place’ + ‚lords’ + ‚noble’), meaning „place of the noble lords”.[16] The Akkadian word Shumer may represent the geographical name in dialect, but the phonological development leading to the Akkadian term šumerû is uncertain.[17] Hebrew Shinar, Egyptian Sngr, and Hittite Šanhar(a), all referring to southern Mesopotamia, could be western variants of Shumer.[17]   

(…)

History

Main article: History of Sumer

The Sumerian city-states rose to power during the prehistoric Ubaid and Uruk periods. Sumerian written history reaches back to the 27th century BC and before, but the historical record remains obscure until the Early Dynastic III period, c. the 23rd century BC, when a now deciphered syllabary writing system was developed, which has allowed archaeologists to read contemporary records and inscriptions. Classical Sumer ends with the rise of the Akkadian Empire in the 23rd century BC. Following the Gutian period, there is a brief Sumerian Renaissance in the 21st century BC, cut short in the 20th century BC by Semitic Amorite invasions. The Amorite „dynasty of Isin” persisted until c. 1700 BC, when Mesopotamia was united under Babylonian rule. The Sumerians were eventually absorbed into the Akkadian (Assyro-Babylonian) population.

(…)

Ubaid period

Main article: Ubaid period

The Ubaid period is marked by a distinctive style of fine quality painted pottery which spread throughout Mesopotamia and the Persian Gulf. During this time, the first settlement in southern Mesopotamia was established at Eridu (Cuneiform: NUN.KI), c. 5300 BC, by farmers who brought with them the Hadji Muhammed culture, which first pioneered irrigation agriculture. It appears that this culture was derived from theSamarran culture from northern Mesopotamia. It is not known whether or not these were the actual Sumerians who are identified with the later Uruk culture. Eridu remained an important religious center when it was gradually surpassed in size by the nearby city of Uruk. The story of the passing of the me (gifts of civilization) to Inanna, goddess of Uruk and of love and war, by Enki, god of wisdom and chief god of Eridu, may reflect this shift in hegemony.[19]
(…)


The Samarra bowl, at thePergamonmuseum, Berlin. Theswastika in the center of the design is a reconstruction.[18]

World’s Earliest Civilization Documentary on the World’s First Civilizations in Iraq

!!!UWAGA!!!
12 minuta filmu – eDeNeDiNjeDeN?

Bronze Age Transformations of the Mediterranean World: A Perspective from the Countryside

Opublikowany 06.10.2013
http://www.latrobe.edu.au/ Professor Steve Falconer studies the rise and collapse of urbanized societies in the Eastern Mediterranean and Near East, turning particular attention to the interactions of small agrarian villages with their larger social, political and natural environments. He utilizes settlement pattern, ceramic, faunal and metallurgical data to characterize rural life during the periodic development and abandonment of the region’s earliest polities and their regional economies. Professor Falconer has directed excavations at a series of Bronze Age farming and herding settlements in in Jordon and currently co-directs excavations on the island of Cyprus. Before joining La Trobe University in 2012, Steve was Professor of Archaeology at Arizona State University.

…..

Na koniec jedno pytanie:

Kto wie, coś skąd ci tzw. Sumerowie kupowali metale… no bo wygląda że swoich kopalni to raczej nie mieli?

Reklamy

10 thoughts on “275 Tzw. kultura Warna i początki obróbki metali… europejskie początki… nie tylko tego z resztą!

  1. To mi uciekło i będzie dodane do wpisu:

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samarra_culture
    Samarra culture

    Geographical range Mesopotamia
    Period Neolithic
    Dates circa 5500–4800 BCE
    Type site Samarra
    Major sites Tell Shemshara, Tell es-Sawwan
    Preceded by Pre-Pottery Neolithic B, Halaf culture, Hassuna culture, Halaf-Ubaid Transitional period
    Followed by Ubaid period

    The Samarra culture is a Chalcolithic archaeological culture in northern Mesopotamia that is roughly dated to 5500–4800 BCE. It partially overlaps with Hassuna and early Ubaid. Samarran material culture was first recognized during excavations by German Archaeologist Ernst Herzfeld at the site of Samarra. Other sites where Samarran material has been found include Tell Shemshara, Tell es-Sawwan and Yarim Tepe.[1]

    At Tell es-Sawwan, evidence of irrigation—including flax—establishes the presence of a prosperous settled culture with a highly organized social structure. The culture is primarily known for its finely made pottery decorated with stylized animals, including birds, and geometric designs on dark backgrounds. This widely exported type of pottery, one of the first widespread, relatively uniform pottery styles in the Ancient Near East, was first recognized at Samarra. The Samarran Culture was the precursor to the Mesopotamian culture of the Ubaid period.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ubaid_period

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ubaid_period#/media/File:Map_Ubaid_culture-en.svg
    https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/80/Map_Ubaid_culture-en.svg
    Geographical range Mesopotamia
    Period Chalcolithic
    Dates circa 6,500 B.C.E. — circa 3,800 B.C.E.
    Type site Tell al-`Ubaid
    Major sites Eridu
    Preceded by Halaf-Ubaid Transitional period, Hassuna culture, Samarra culture
    Followed by Uruk period

    The Ubaid period (ca. 6500 to 3800 BCE)[1] is a prehistoric period of Mesopotamia. The name derives from Tell al-`Ubaid where the earliest large excavation of Ubaid period material was conducted initially by Henry Hall and later by Leonard Woolley.[2]

    In South Mesopotamia the period is the earliest known period on the alluvial plain although it is likely earlier periods exist obscured under the alluvium.[3] In the south it has a very long duration between about 6500 and 3800 BCE when it is replaced by the Uruk period [4]

    In North Mesopotamia the period runs only between about 5300 and 4300 BCE.[4] It is preceded by the Halaf period and the Halaf-Ubaid Transitional period and succeeded by the Late Chalcolithic period.
    (…)

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uruk_period
    The Uruk period (ca. 4000 to 3100 BC) existed from the protohistoric Chalcolithic to Early Bronze Age period in the history of Mesopotamia, following the Ubaid period and succeeded by the Jemdet Nasr period.[1] Named after the Sumerian city of Uruk, this period saw the emergence of urban life in Mesopotamia. It was followed by the Sumerian civilization.[2] The late Uruk period (34th to 32nd centuries) saw the gradual emergence of the cuneiform script and corresponds to the Early Bronze Age; it may also be called the Protoliterate period.[3] It was during this period that pottery painting declined as copper started to become popular, along with cylinder seals.[4]
    (…)

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sumer
    Sumer (/ˈsuːmər/)[note 1] was the first ancient urban civilization in the historical region of southern Mesopotamia, modern-day southern Iraq, during the Chalcolithic and Early Bronze ages, and arguably the first civilization in the world.[1]

    Proto-writing in the region dates back to c. 3500 BC. The earliest texts come from the cities of Uruk and Jamdat Nasr and date back to 3,300BC; early cuneiform writing emerged in 3,000 BC.[2]

    Modern historians have suggested that Sumer was first permanently settled between c. 5500 and 4000 BC by a pre-Semitic people who spoke the linguistically isolated Sumerian language (pointing to the names of cities, rivers, basic occupations, etc., as evidence).[3][4][5][6]

    These conjectured, prehistoric people are now called „proto-Euphrateans” or „Ubaidians”,[7] and are theorized to have evolved from the Samarra culture of northern Mesopotamia (Assyria).[8][9][10][11] The Ubaidians (though never mentioned by the Sumerians themselves) are assumed by modern-day scholars to have been the first civilizing force in Sumer, draining the marshes for agriculture, developing trade, and establishing industries, including weaving, leatherwork, metalwork, masonry, and pottery.[7]
    (…)

    …..

    Czy teraz jest już widoczne, że na północ od tzw. Sumeru istniały wcześniej kultury archeologiczne… które tworzyły ceramikę bez koła garncarskiego… i potem z nim… a także zajmowały się w jakimś stopniu metalurgią, patrz kultura Halaf?!!

    Jak można być wiarygodnym i nadal twierdzić, jak to robi wikipedia, że raz koło garncarskie wymyślono w tzw. Sumerze… by gdzie indziej pisać o tym, że koło garncarskie było już znane na północy w kulturze Halaf… „circa 6,100 B.C.E. — circa 5,100 B.C.E.”,.. czyli jakieś 2000 lat wcześniej niż oficjalne początki tzw. Sumeru?!!

    Lubię to

  2. „WaRNa
    BaRWa
    BaRWNiK
    BaRWiC’/T’
    FaRBA

    WaRNa
    WaR”eNie
    WaR”yC’/T’
    WaR”oNa
    WaRoWNa
    WaRoWNia

    WaGa
    WaZ”eNie
    WaZ”Na

    WoZ
    WoZiC’/T’
    WoZN+iCa

    WaRT
    WaRTa
    WaRT+oS’C’/T’
    WaRT+oS’C/TioWy
    WaRT+oWNia
    WaRT+oWNiK…”

    Zapomniałeś o najważniejszym słowie, czyli
    WaR (coś goracego, bulgocącego, mieszającego się),
    z tego i zapewne
    ŻaR
    sWaR
    sWaRóg (bóg ognia i słońca)
    sWaRga (symbol słońca)
    skWaR (upał, spiekota)
    WRzątek (w rosyjskim: kipiatok, czyli kipieć)

    WaRzyć (np.piwo),
    WaRka (porcja piwa z jednego gotowania, czyli z jednego GaRa i właśnie czy ten GaR nie pochodzi od WaR?)
    WRzeć
    wyWar ( w sanskrycie: AŚaWa, identyczne z SaWa (imię żeńskie i nazwa rzeki)
    WaRować (pilnować by nie wykipiało z war-a/gar-a)
    WaRga (część ciała, ktorą można poparzyć wyWaRem)

    dalej luźne nawiązania:
    WaRt (zawartość war-a/gar-a), więc i…
    WaRtościowe
    WaRtki (szybki, niczym szybko mieszająca się zawartość war-a/gar-a podczas intensywnego gotowania)
    tWaRz (coś co można zobaczyć w podgrzewanej wodzie? podobno jest to mozliwe w okolicy 70 st.C)
    zaWaRtość (to co w war-ze/gar-ze)
    WaRstwa (nie wiem, ale to z tego musi być)
    otWaRty (jak wyżej?)

    słownik tak podaje:
    [1. wrzący, gotujący się płyn; ukrop, wrzątek;
    2. wielkie gorąco; żar;
    3. przenośnie: wrażenie gorąca odczuwane w jakiejś części ciała z powodu wstydu, lęku, podniecenia itp.;
    4. przenośnie: gwałtowność, wielkie nasilenie czegoś]

    odnośnie pkt.4:
    WaRiacja, zWaRiować, WaRiat

    Polubione przez 1 osoba

    • Rzeczywiści umkło mi to! 🙂 Wielkie dzięki za Z+WRo/o’/u/vCeNie uwagi na to!. Miło, że widać, że współczesna nazwa WaRNa, ma związek ze Słowianami i Naszym Prastarym językiem!!! 🙂 Jako usprawiedliwienie, napiszę, że nie jest to wpis o językoznawstwie, a o innych związkach, jak np. wzory na garnkach i miskach… itp.

      Teraz mi przyszło do głowy jeszcze to:

      GWaR… i GaWoR”eNie… hehehe Jakoś tak jednak językoznawstwo nawet z GaRa samo wyłazi…

      Przy okazji napisze coś o genetyce… a właściwie o jej badań braku… Dość długo szukałem coś na temat DNA z próbek kultury Warna (kości jak widać jest pełno)… i nie znalazłem jak to zwykle z Bałkanami bywa… nic… zupełnie nic wiarygodnego… Ciekawe, czy ktoś nie chce, czy boi się te kości badać?

      Lubię to

      • Podobieństwa między garnkowe nie wzruszają mnie, jeszcze by z nich wywodzić cokolwiek, jest to niepoważne, z założenia muszą one być podobne, tak jak garnki są koliste,a nie kwadratowe.

        Popracuj nad rdzeniem W.R, zapewne wyjdą z niego setki słów, co też wskazuje nam, że chcąc wywieść i znaleźć przyczynę takiego a nie innego brzmienia słów, należy zaczynać od rdzeni.

        Podejrzewam, że tych rdzeni nie ma wcale tak dużo, strzelam, że do 50. Po czasie, gdy je poskładasz w całość wyjdzie samoistnie ‚słownik rdzeni’, a nie ‚słownik słów’, ktory tutaj będzie ‚tylko’ indeksem słów’.

        Kości bada się w sposób jednostkowy i wybiórczy, gorzej, że wnioski rownież są wybiórcze, np. od ponad roku dostępne są wielu dane wskazujące, że R1a M417 jest wyróżnikiem k.ceramiki sznurowej, ale nikt tego nie opublikował jako pracy naukowej, chociaż dane z kilku prac na to wskazują jednoznacznie.

        Lubię to

      • Nie umiem się z Tobą nie zgodzić… A co do garnków i potłuczonych skorup, to ja jedynie wskazuję na dziwne podobieństwa, które jak spojrzy się na to, to nagle okazuje się, że ten cały tzw. Sumer… to wcale taki stary nie był… ani pierwszy… itd…

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  3. https://www.google.co.uk/search?q=Aibunar&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&gws_rd=cr&ei=sfblVvSADYPt6AS-0YHgCw

    http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8887800
    Aibunar—a Balkan copper mine of the fourth millennium BC: (Investigations of the years 1971, 1972 and 1974)*

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metallurgy_during_the_Copper_Age_in_Europe
    (…)
    Roughly, the Copper Age could be situated chronologically between the 5th and 6th millennium BC in places like the archaeological sites of Majdanpek, Јarmovac and Pločnik (a copper axe from 5500 BC belonging to the Vinča culture).[1] Somewhat later, in 5th millennium BC, metalwork is attested at Rudna Glava mine in Serbia,[2] and at Ai Bunar mine in Bulgaria.[3]

    3rd millennium BC copper metalwork is attested in places like Palmela (Portugal), Cortes de Navarra (Spain), and Stonehenge (United Kingdom). However, as often happens with the prehistoric times, the limits of the age cannot be clearly defined and vary with different sources.
    (…)
    Inception of metallurgy in Europe

    The theory that metallurgy was imported into Europe from the Near East has been practically ruled out. A second hypothesis, that there were two main points of origin of metallurgy in Europe, in southern Spain and in West Bulgaria, is also doubtful due to the existence of sites outside the centers of diffusion where metallurgy was known simultaneously with, or before, those in the ‘original’ nuclei, such as Brixlegg (Tyrol, Austria), while sites closer to the supposed origins of metallurgy, such as in the north of Spain, show fewer metal artifacts than sites in the south and practically no evidence of production (Perez Arrondo 1986).

    Nowadays, the general opinion is that the development of metallurgy took place independently in different places, at different times, with various techniques. One fact that supports this interpretation is that, although the final products (beads, rings, sickles, swords, axes, etc.) are quite similar throughout Europe, the method of production is not. Thus the use of crucibles was the technique utilized in the south of Spain, whereas central Europe employed a slagging process, but Cabrierés (France) used a primitive oxidizing non-slagging process (Bourgarit, et al. 2003), while in the British Isles the absence of debris, slag or ceramic suggests another technique (Craddock 1995).

    Consequently, the way in which metallurgy was initiated differs considerably depending on the region. There are areas in which copper seems to play a crucial role (i.e., the Balkans), whereas other areas show no interest in it at all. Then there are societies that use copper artifacts but do not practice metallurgy (Mohen 1992; 71), and there are other ones that fully adopt some of the cultural innovations but ignore the rest. One example of the latter is Basque country in northern Spain, where splendid large dolmens are present along the Ebro river, but metal is rather infrequent, and when it does appear between the trapping, it is more often bronze or arsenical copper than copper (Cava 1984).
    (…)
    Early mining in Europe

    Minerals of copper were known from ancient times. In Crete, little fragments of malachite and azurite were powdered and used as make up or to decorate ceramic in an early date such as 6000 BC (Mohen 1992).

    Therefore, the minerals were not collected because people were looking for copper but for virtues like those mentioned or simply because of its brightness and colour, but this knowledge of the minerals is critical since they already knew how to recognize them and where to collect them when, later, they started the systematic search for ores.

    Numerous examples of mines are known all over Europe (Craddock 1980, Mohen 1992 and 1996, Shennan 1999, Bartelheim et al. 2003) from the east: Rudna Glava (Serbia), Ai Bunar (Bulgaria); to the west: Mount Gabriel (Ireland), Great Orme, Alderley Edge (United Kingdom); crossing Central Europe: Mitterberg (Salzach, Austria), Neuchâtel (Switzerland), Cabrierés (France); to the south: Riotinto, Mola Alta de Serelles (Spain); and the Mediterranean: Corsica, Cyprus, and the Cyclades islands. It is remarkable that, usually, it is not a single mine but a complex, with a variable, large number of mineshafts, as in Rudna Glava (30) or Mount Gabriel (31).
    (…)

    http://www.encyclopedia.com/article-1G2-3400400074/early-copper-mines-rudna.html

    https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=gFEARIQ6zYoC&pg=PA170&lpg=PA170&dq=Aibunar&source=bl&ots=Rt0VLpEOBC&sig=IzxkDU-72bUPLNg4vavQap0fBXk&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj77vW7577LAhXKJJoKHa_OCb0Q6AEIOzAE#v=onepage&q=Aibunar&f=false
    The Lost World of Old Europe: The Danube Valley, 5000-3500 BC
    By David W. Anthony

    https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=w4tLF6ffLScC&pg=PA215&lpg=PA215&dq=Aibunar&source=bl&ots=R3Vdd81UN4&sig=xNUaBBUG_O4b-aSHRHk6QVFtojA&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj77vW7577LAhXKJJoKHa_OCb0Q6AEIPjAF#v=onepage&q=Aibunar&f=false
    Balkan Prehistory: Exclusion, Incorporation and Identity
    By Douglass Whitfield Bailey

    https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=UYpVBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA52&lpg=PA52&dq=Aibunar&source=bl&ots=MPaCPYXB0L&sig=7y_uWakq20iqPrhgkbca25_UZsE&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj77vW7577LAhXKJJoKHa_OCb0Q6AEIQTAG#v=onepage&q=Aibunar&f=false
    Prehistoric Copper Mining in Europe: 5500-500 BC
    By William O’Brien

    https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=IURum42ob9UC&pg=PA327&lpg=PA327&dq=Aibunar&source=bl&ots=sPx9TZQXe0&sig=utCG8KLLlJn_bp4E5oVTgSlXk-o&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj77vW7577LAhXKJJoKHa_OCb0Q6AEIRDAH#v=onepage&q=Aibunar&f=false
    Metodi Di Fisica in Archeometria
    edited by Marco Martini, Mario Milazzo, M. Piacentini, Società italiana di fisica

    https://www.ucl.ac.uk/rise-metallurgy-eurasia
    This project originated in the collaboration between Prof Thilo Rehren, Institute of Archaeology, UCL, Dr Miljana Radivojević and the National Museum in Belgrade, Serbia in 2007.

    The analysis of the copper smelting slags at Belovode provided the core of Dr Radivojević’s MSc thesis which subsequently led on to a PhD thesis (2008-2012) incorporating metallurgical remains from the Vinča culture sites of Pločnik, Gornja Tuzla, Vinča, Gomolava and the Early Neolithic sites of Lepenski Vir, Vlasac and Kolubara-Jaričište.

    The project builds on two decades of excavations at Jarmovac, Belovode and Pločnik conducted by the National Museum, Belgrade; the Museum of Toplica, Prokuplje and Homeland Museum of Priboj all of which were, and continue to be, funded by the Serbian Ministry of Culture.
    Miljana Radivojević in the Wolfson Archaeological Science Laboratories at the UCL Institute of Archaeology © Rise of Metallurgy in Eurasia
    Archaeological Background-Vinča Culture

    The origins, chronological phasing, and coherency of Vinča culture have been disputed for over a century. It is currently conventionally dated to c. 5300-4600 BC. The Vinča culture is distinguished primarily by large tell villages which range up to 100 ha in size, thus exceeding many contemporary Near Eastern settlements, and also by its distinctive pottery. If these two are taken as diagnostic, then the extent of the Vinča culture would be up to c. 190,000 km2.

    No Vinča site has been sufficiently excavated to provide good enough data for estimating its population size but estimates have been made of 50-200 for smaller sites (c. 1-1.9 ha) and 1000-2500 people for large sites (>29 ha), all under the assumption that the entire site area was used simultaneously (Chapman 1981: 51).
    The distribution of the Vinča culture (adapted after Kaiser and Voytek, 1983: 333, Fig. 1)

    Early metallurgy in the Balkans has attracted scholarly attention for almost a century and is closely associated with Vinča culture sites, from the discovery of metal artefacts at the Vinča culture settlement of Pločnik (Grbić 1929) and the excavation of Vinča culture pottery in copper mining shafts at Jarmovac (Davies 1937), both in Serbia. The region became a major focus for early mining and metallurgy with the excavation of the copper mining sites Rudna Glava and Ai Bunar (Jovanović 1980; Chernykh 1978).

    While pioneering provenance studies demonstrated these mines were exploited by local communities to make large copper tools during the 5th millennium BC (Pernicka et al. 1993; Pernicka et al. 1997), the recent political situation has meant that the quantity and scale of excavations and surveys decreased dramatically since 1990 due to political instability. Thus, despite this mining evidence and c.4.7 tonnes of contemporary copper objects recovered in the region, there was little evidence for actual metal production until the recent findings at Belovode (Radivojević et al. 2010).

    The project focuses on the sites of Jarmovac, Belovode, Gornja Tuzla and Pločnik.

    The importance of these sites lies in the quality and quantity of evidence for mining at Jarmovac, metal production from Belovode and Gornja Tuzla, and metal processing and consumption at Pločnik together covering the full chaîne opératoire of metallurgy.

    Jarmovac consists of mining shafts and an associated settlement containing early 5th millennium BC pottery.

    Belovode and Pločnik comprise 3-5m of well-preserved occupation deposits covering c. 80-100ha, 14C-dated from c. 5400-4600 BC (Borić, 2009). Both are close to ore sources and on important route-ways through the Balkans, and existed at the centre of large exchange networks. Belovode metal production can be linked to massive copper artefacts found across the Balkans, while the typologically homogenous Pločnik hammer-axes have been demonstrated to come from at least five different copper sources (Pernicka et al., 1997, Radivojević et al., 2010).
    The reconstructed Vinča culture village at Pločnik ©Julka Kuzmanović-Cvetković

    Gornja Tuzla has a well-dated mid 5th millennium BC Vinča culture sequence with a smelting hearth and copper smelting evidence (Čović, 1961).

    Together, these four sites provide an unparalleled opportunity to comprehensively study the early development, evolution and spread of metallurgy. The project will combine two seasons of surveys and excavations at Belovode, Pločnik and Jarmovac with laboratory analysis of already existing finds, and new ones. Gornja Tuzla will be the subjected to post-excavation analysis only.

    Lubię to

  4. http://armchairprehistory.com/2015/08/30/a-primer-on-old-world-metals-before-the-copper-age/
    A primer on old-world metals before the Copper age (revised)

    (…)
    Evidence of smelting
    Iraq

    It has been argued that corroded copper from Tell is Sawwan and at Yarim Tepe I shows a notable content of iron, making it possible that the copper is derived from smelting around the early sixth millennium BC. This is currently disputed.

    However, three occurrences of lead dating to the beginning of the sixth millennium BC at Yarim Tepe, Jarmo and Tell Arpachiyah are potentially more significant. Unless they came from a rare source of native lead then they are likely to be sourced from the roasting or smelting of galena. This galena is likely to have come from Turkey or Iran. Either way, while the technology needed is not as complex as that for copper smelting, it is still significant.
    Turkey

    The earliest disputed evidence for copper smelting is from Çatal Höyük (level VIA) (late seventh millennium BC). Original reports suggested broken crucibles, semi-melted ore fragments and a slag (unwanted material from molten copper). However, doubts have been raised by Miljana Radivojevic and others, who suggest that this may be simply the result of uncontrolled fire (something certainly seen at this level) in association either with native copper or ore. Whatever, copper was melted, meaning that high temperatures were achieved.

    Additionally, there is the chemical signature of smelted copper in mid eighth millennium BC Nevalı Çori. However, this date seems so anomalous as to be currently discounted.
    Chisels and axes from Yümüktepe.

    Chisels and axes from Yümüktepe.

    Good evidence for smelted copper artefacts, is found at Yümüktepe / Mersin (level XVII), where cast copper axes and chisels with chemical signatures of smelting date from around 5000-4900 BC. Subsequent levels even show evidence of alloying with small quantities tin and arsenic.

    Evidence of actual smelting in Turkey dates only to the late late fifth millennium BC at Değirmentepe and various other sites (Noršuntepe, Tepeçik, Tülintepe). The earliest evidence of copper ore mining in Turkey comes from Kozlu Eski Gümüşlük. This is dated as around 4000 BC, based on radiocarbon dating of wood from the mine.³
    Europe

    Clear evidence of smelting technology, in the form of slag and crucibles, comes from Belovode, Serbia, at around 5000 BC (Vinca B2). Additionally, discoveries at Pločnik, Serbia have revealed 34 large, cast copper implements, dating to the early fifth millennium BC, contemporary with those at Mersin (an additional claim of tin bronze foil from this site, dated to around 4500 BC, needs further work as it is of rather early date). Further evidence of smelting technology comes from mid fifth millennium BC Vinča-Belo Brdo, Serbia and perhaps also from Gornja Tuzla, Bosnia.

    In Macedonia, possible evidence for smelting of copper comes from Dikili, together with objects and a needle, dating around the beginning of the fifth millennium BC. Copper beads and other objects are also found in Sitagroi, northern Greece (end level II), from around 4800 BC. A copper artefact with a high iron content is also found at Usoe (level II), Bulgaria, dating to around 5000 BC. Lastly, a possible fragment of slag from Anza IV, Yugoslavia, dates to the same time.

    Evidence of the use of two early copper mines in the Balkans, Ai Bunar, Bulgaria and Rudna Glava, Serbia, comes from the late sixth millennium to early fourth millennium BC, based on evidence in the mines and matching chemical signatures of copper artefacts. Chemical signatures indicate that perhaps four other mines were operating somewhere in the Balkans during this period. (It is probably important to mention that mining, probably for malachite, was not not necessarily to smelt ores).

    There is little evidence for copper smelting in other parts of Europe until the late fifth millennium BC, the earliest being from Brixlegg, in Austria. Copper smelting seems to be relatively widespread in central Europe by the mid fourth millennium BC.5
    Iran

    The earliest clear evidence for copper smelting on the Iranian Plateau is from Tal-i Iblis (between levels I and II). The dating of this evidence is poor and can currently only be limited to the range 5200-4400BC. However, there also is good evidence for copper smelting at other places such as Tepe Ghabristan and Tepe Sialk from the mid to late fifth millennium BC. 4
    Israel

    Evidence of local copper smelting comes from the second half of the fifth millennium BC. Sites such in sites such as Shiqmim and Abu Matar contain evidence of smelting ores.
    Pakistan

    Crucibles from Mehrgarh, Pakistan date from the first half of the fourth millennium BC, a little later again.
    Russia

    At Khvalynsk, on the Volga, 320 copper beads and other ornaments have been found in a cemetery dated to around 4700 BC. Analyses show that most of these are imports from the Balkans.
    The first gold & silver

    As far as I can tell, there are no recorded Neolithic gold artefacts. The most spectacular find of gold artefacts comes from the copper age Varna (I) cemetery in Bulgaria, but there are also various other finds of worked gold in Bulgaria, as well as in Macedonia, Romania and the Ukrainian steppe. These all date to the later fifth millennium, none being earlier than about 4500 BC. Sources for these are thought to be placer deposits in western Bulgaria.

    The oldest occurrence of silver, two native silver beads, is slightly earlier, occuring in a rather macabre ‘Death Pit’ in Domuztepe, south-central Turkey, probably dates around the middle sixth millennium BC. Later occurrences include a hoard in Alepotrypa, in southern Greece, dated to the mid 5th to early 4th millennium BC. However, there is also evidence of actual silver smelting from Sardinia by the end of the fifth millennium BC or the beginning of the 4th millennium.5
    Discussion

    The overall picture presented above suggests the following:

    1) Native copper is first extracted in south eastern Turkey around 8500 BC, near the beginning of the PPNB (pre-pottery Neolithic B).

    2) After about 7400 BC copper becomes extremely rare in the archaeological record for almost a thousand years, perhaps indicating either a lack of sources, a lack of mining or extreme care in preventing its deposition.

    3) From 6500 BC native copper again becomes increasingly available, with its use being more extensive, occurring from the Balkans to Pakistan, as well as profligate.

    4) The first smelting of lead was perhaps achieved in the mid to late 6th millennium, perhaps in either south eastern Turkey or western Iran (this may await further analysis of the evidence). Coincidentally or not, the first appearance of silver is also from this time.

    5) Sometime around or just before 5000 BC the first smelting of carbonate ores for copper was achieved. This could have been in the Balkans and, possibly simultaneously, in Turkey (see discussion below).

    6) By the second half of the fifth millennium BC the technology of smelting carbonate ores had spread west into central Europe, east onto the Iranian plateau, and south into the Levant.

    7) The expansion of copper usage around the middle of the fifth millennium BC appears to have promoted the use of other metals, notably gold and silver, in the Balkans and beyond, as well as experimentation with alloying.
    Many origins or one origin for copper smelting?

    The smelting of copper has long been assumed to have started in one place, either in Turkey, Iran, Iraq or the Levant. However, recent evidence of early mining and early smelting in the Balkans has caused a reassessment.

    Most archaeologists now argue for multiple origins for copper smelting, with one origin in the west, in the Balkans, and one in the east, perhaps in Turkey or Iran (currently the favoured view of Miljana Radivojevic). On the other hand some still argue for a single origin, perhaps in Turkey (e.g. Ben Roberts and Chris Thornton).

    If the evidence of lead smelting is taken into account then the most parsimonious explanation would be an origin for all smelting in Turkey, as Roberts and Thornton argue. However, lead smelting needs a simpler technology than copper smelting and is not necessarily linked. If this were not taken into account, then it’s perfectly arguable that the Balkans (including perhaps NW Turkey) is earlier in its smelting of copper.

    What if the chisels found in Mersin/Yümüktepe, Turkey were, in fact, imports from the Balkans? While very unlikely, the recent discovery in Israel of a copper awl with a high tin content, which appeared to be from somewhere beyond Anatolia, suggests that copper objects could move over considerable distances at this time, so makes it not impossible. More than this, the occurrence of Balkan copper on the Volga, 700 miles from its source in Bulgaria, indicates that Balkan copper could be exported the distance to Yümüktepe and further.

    What’s probably needed to prove this wrong is an analysis of the copper implements from Yümüktepe. If they were found to be sourced from ores that do not match those of the Balkans then such an argument would be difficult to justify. Whatever, only further finds and increasing refinements to the dating will answer all of these questions.
    References

    Akkermans, P. M. M. G. & Schwartz, G.M. 2004 The archaeology of Syria: from complex hunter-gatherers to early urban, Cambridge, pp486.

    Anthony, D. 2007 The Horse, the Wheel and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World, Princeton, pp568.

    Antonović, D. 2000 Malachite finds in Vinča Culture: evidence of early copper metallurgy in Serbia, Metallurgija – Journal of Metallurgy, p85-92.

    ²Archaeology Daily News 2010 Belovode site in Serbia may have hosted first copper makers, Website

    §Bar-Yosef Mayer, D.E & Porat, N. 2008 Green stone beads at the dawn of agriculture. PNAS 105, p8548-8551.

    Bastert-Lamprichs K. et al. 2012 Der Beginn der Landwirtschaftim Südkaukasus. Die Ausgrabungen in Aruchlo in Georgien. Berlin: DAI Eurasien Abteilung. pp48.Betancourt, P. 2006 The Chrysokamino Metallurgy Workshop and its territory, Oxbow, pp462.

    Carter E. et al 2003 Elusive complexity: new data from late Halaf Domuztepe in south central Turkey. Paléorient 29, p117-34. Source of data on silver beads from Domuztepe.

    Craddock, P.T. 2000 From Hearth to Furnace: Evidences for the Earliest Metal Smelting Technologies in the Eastern Mediterranean. Paléorient 26, p151-165.

    Eşin, U. 1995 Early copper metallurgy in the Pre-pottery site of Aşıklı, Readings in Prehistory: Studies presented to Halet Çambel, Graphis, p61-77.

    Föll, H. (date unknown) Iron, Steel and Swords (website). A brilliantly ideosyncratic overview of the history of metals by a retired academic from Kiel University. Full of life and picture, some of which I’ve borrowed.

    Frame, L. 2004 Investigations at Tal-i Iblis : evidence for copper smelting during the Chalcolithic period, PhD Thesis, MIT. This provides the evidence for copper smelting in Iran at Tal-i Iblis Level I (5290-4420BC calibrated), both in crucibles and in copper ornaments.

    Gale, N.H. 1992 Metals and Metallurgy in the Chalcolithic Period, In: Flannigan, J.W. (ed) Chalcolithic Cyprus. Oxford UP, p37-61.

    Garfinkel, Y. et al. 2014 The Beginning of Metallurgy in the Southern Levant: A Late 6th Millennium CalBC Copper Awl from Tel Tsaf, Israel. PLoS One. 9.

    Golden, J. 2009 New Light on the Development of Chalcolithic Metal Technology in the Southern Levant, Journal of World Prehistory 22, p283-300.

    ^Hauptmann, A. 2007, The Archaeometallurgy of Copper, Evidence from Faynan, Jordan, Springer pp388.

    Heskel, D.L. 1983 A Model for the adoption of Metallurgy in the Ancient Near East. Current Anthropology 24, p362-366.

    Jovanović, B. 2009 Beginning of the Metal Age in the Central Balkans according to the results of archaeometallurgy, Journal of Mining and Metallurgy 45, 143-148.

    ³Kaptan, E. 1980 New Findings on the Mining History of Turkey around Tokat Region, Mineral Research and Exploration Institute of Turkey p65-76.

    Maisels, C. K. 1999 Early Civilizations of the Old World, Routledge, pp479.

    Molist, M. et al. 2009 New Metallurgic Findings from the Pre-Pottery Neolithic: Tell Halula (Euphrates Valley, Syria), Paléorient 32, p33-48.

    Moorey, P.R.S. 1999 Ancient Mesopotamian Materials and Industries: The Archaeological Evidence, Eisenbrauns, pp415.

    Morteani, G. & Northover, J.P. (eds) 2013 Prehistoric Gold In Europe: Mines, Metallurgy and Manufacture, Springer, pp618.

    Some of this looks interesting with some good maps.

    O’Brien W. 2015 Prehistoric Copper Mining in Europe: 5500-500 BC, Oxford, pp416.

    What a book this appears to be, only discovered after I rewrote this post, but at £75 I’m not quite sure that I can afford it. Ho hum.

    Özbal, H. 2014 (revision) Ancient Anatolian Metallurgy – powerpoint

    Parkinson, W.A. 2004 Early copper mines at Rudna Glava and Ai Bunar, Novel Guide website.

    Pigott, V.C. 1996 Near Eastern Archaeometallurgy: Modern Research and Future Directions. In: The Study of the Ancient Near East in the 21st Century, Eisenbrauns, p139-176.

    Pigott, V.C. 1999 The archaeometallurgy of the Asian old world, Pennysylvania University, pp206.

    Potts, D.T., 1997 Mesopotamian Civilization: the Material Foundations, Cornell, pp377.

    Rapp, G.R. 2002 Archaeomineralogy, Springer, pp326. Reports occurrence of native copper in China, as well as possibly in Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan.

    Radivojević, M. et al. 2010, On the Origins of Extractive Metallurgy: New Evidence from Europe, Journal of Archaeological Science 37, p2775–2787.

    Radivojevic, M. & Kuzmanović-Cvetoković 2014 Copper minerals and archaeometallurgical materials from the Vinča culture sites of Belovoce and Pločnik: overview of the evidence and new data. Starinar 64, p7-30

    Radivojević, M. et al. 2013, Tainted ores and the rise of tin bronzes in Eurasia, c. 6500 years ago, Antiquity 87, p1030-1045. Comment by Duško Šljivar & Dušan Borić 2013 Context is everything (and reply). Arguing the case for mid-fifth millennium BC alloying to make bronze in the Balkans.

    Radivojevic, M. & Rehren, T. 2015 Paint It Black: The Rise of Metallurgy in the Balkans, Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory (online)

    Roberts, B.W. et al. 2009 Development of metallurgy in Eurasia, Antiquity 83, p1012-1022.

    Roberts, B.W. ?2010 Metallurgical Networks and Technological Choice: understanding early metal in Western Europe, (online)

    5 Roberts, B.W. 2009 Production Networks and Consumer Choice in the Earliest Metal of Western Europe, Journal of World Prehistory 22, p461-481.

    Sagona, A. & Zimansky, P.E. 2009 Ancient Turkey, Routeledge, pp408.

    Shrivastva, R. 1999 The mining of copper in Ancient India, Indian Journal of History of Science 34, 173-180.

    Šjlivar, D. 2006 The Earliest Copper Metallurgy in the Central Balkans, Assoc. Metallurgical Engs. Serbia 12, 93-104.

    *Solecki, R.S, Solecki, R.L., Agelaraki, A.P. 2004 The proto-neolithic cemetery in Shanidar Cave. Texas A & M University, pp256.

    Steadman, S.R. & McMahon, G. 2011 Earliest Anatolian Metals and Metallurgy: The Neolithic and Chalcolithic. In: The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia, Oxford, p861-876.

    Thornton, C.P. 2009 The Emergence of Complex Metallurgy on the Iranian Plateau: Escaping the Levantine Paradigm, Journal of World Prehistory 22, p301–327.

    Thornton, C.P. et al. 2010 A Chalcolithic error: rebuttal to Amzallag 2009, American Journal of Archaeology 114, p305-315.

    Other useful reference page by Chris Thornton

    Yalçın, Ü 1998 Der Keulenkopf von Can Hasan (TR) Naturwissenschaftliche Untersuchung und Neue Interpretation, p279-289 In: Rehren Th. Hauptmann A. & Muhly J.D. Metallurgica Antiqua. In honour of Hans-Gert Bachmann and Robert Maddin. Deutsches Bergbau-Museum, Bochum, pp304. I wish I read German, but it is an original source.

    Unknown Provenance, list of sites in Turkey producing metals from Neolithic to Bronze age. Possibly rather dated sources summarised by someone with a familiarity with Japanese.

    Unknown authors (date unknown) The History of the Near East Electronic Compendium (website). Info on Tell Ramad and other sites.

    Unknown author 2014 Neolithic metallurgy in Anatolia (copy of powerpoint slides). Actually covering metallurgy down to the chalcolithic.

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  5. Ci tzw. Sumerowie rzekomo wg. oficjalniej nauki wymyślili wszystko… i byli pierwsi we wszystkim… Ciekawe, czy ma to związek z tym, że to tzw. Abram miał pochodzić z tzw. Ur chaldejskiego… czyli rzekomo z jednego z najstarszych miast na świecie…? Pustynna tradycja zobowiązuje… bo trzeba pokazać jej (czyli swoje) „stare korzenie”… I tak sobie myślę, że szkoda bardzo, że to tzw. Anglicy z Oxfordu, Cambridge itd… z tym swoim BBC angielskim… i tym swoim „syfilizejszyn”… pierniczą takie obrzezane brednie…

    Mesopotamia – The Sumerians

    Forbidden History of the Sumerians [FULL VIDEO]

    Michael Tellinger Ancient Civilizations Before Sumeria and Egypt

    The Ancient Sumerian Cuneiform Tablets True Meaning Revealed

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