In Focus: Varna
The Lost Aurolithic Civilization Of Varna HD – The Black Sea Atlantis Documentary
Varna Archaeological Museum:: Eneolithic Necropolis – Varna
W 2,55 minucie tego filmu ukazany jest ryt jeźdźca na koniu (z włócznią?)!!! Ktoś wie, ile setek lat ten wizerunek jest wcześniejszy od datowania udomowienia konia…?!!
The First Civilization in Europe and the Oldest Gold in the World – Varna, Bulgaria 5th millenn. BC
Pod koniec tego filmu jest mowa o substancji zwanej „elektron”, czyli połączeniu złota i srebra!!!
VARNA Prima Europaea
Revolutions: The Age of Metal and the Evolution of European Civilization
Revolutions: The Age of Metal and the Evolution of European Civilization
Membership Lecture, The New Mexico History Museum Auditorium
Thursday, December 1, 2011, 6:30 pm-7:30 pm
The evolution of agricultural villages in Europe, from their beginning in the Neolithic through their fluorescence during the Bronze Age, is the subject of this illustrated lecture. Historically, scholars assumed that most innovations, including in metallurgy, occurred earlier in the Near East and only later moved into the European continent. Advances in absolute dating and other research techniques prove otherwise.
Ten wpis nawiązuje do dwóch poprzednich wpisów poświęconych poszukiwaniu źródeł powstania kultury i tradycji tzw. Sumerów i ich wierzeń, mitów, itd,..
…ale jest ich tak jakby technicznym uzupełnieniem i rozszerzeniem do tego poszukiwania początków, w tym przypadku do początku wydobycia i obróbki metali, koła garncarskiego, koła, wozu itd… a także powstania tzw. Mitu o potopie, a czemu w całości będzie poświęcony następny wpis.
Pragnę upowszechnić trochę źródeł powiązanych z tymi zagadnieniami, bo nie wiem, czy ktoś słyszał o tym, ale wygląda na to, (odmiennie od tego, co upowszechniają oficjalne źródła, jak np. wikipedia itp), że pierwszeństwo w tym wszystkim ma Europa, a dokładnie jej południowy skrawek, czyli miejsce zwane dziś Bałkanami i pradawne kultury archeologiczne tam odnajdywane, jak np. kultura Warna, z jej obróbką złota itd.
Proszę zapoznać się ze zgromadzonymi tu źródłami, bo na sam koniec, w nawiązaniu do nich, jak i do następnego wpisu, zadaję jedno pytanie…
First Civilization in Europe and World’s First Gold, Varna
The Mysteries of Black Sea Atlantis – The hidden knowledge of Varna Civilization.
Dark Secrets of the Black Sea – Uncovering Lost Civilization – FEATURE
The early civilizations of Europe: Varna 4600 – 4000 BC
Varna Archaeological Museum – Gold Artefacts
Obejmowała swym zasięgiem obszary położone od ujścia Dunaju do gór Stradża. Rozwój tej jednostki kulturowej miał miejsce w 2 połowie V tysiąclecia p.n.e. Inwentarz ceramiczny składał się z naczynia wykonywanych na kole garncarskim i malowanych przed wypaleniem; ceramika miała tak wysoki poziom technologiczny, że sugeruje to istnienie w strukturze społecznej grupy rzemieślników-garncarzy. O równie wysokim stopniu zaawansowania w produkcji metalurgicznej poświadczają odkrycia z kopalni Aibunar. W inwentarzach kamiennych poświadczona jest obecność przęślików co może sugerować rozwój tkactwa. Osady lokalizowane były w pobliżu lagun, gdzie konstrukcje mieszkalne wznoszono na wbitych w dno palach, lub wznoszone na tellach lokalizowanych na pobliskich wyspach np. stanowisko Durankulak. Ludność zajmowała się głównie uprawą pszenicy, jęczmienia, poświadczona jest także hodowla kóz, owiec i bydła.
- Janusz K. Kozłowski, Wielka Historia Świata, t. II Od „rewolucji” neolitycznej do podbojów Aleksandra Wielkiego, Fogra, Kraków 2004.
- Janusz K. Kozłowski, Archeologia Prahistoryczna, t. I Starsza Epoka Kamienia, Nakładem Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego, Kraków 1972.
- Piotr Kaczanowski, Janusz K. Kozłowski, Wielka Historia Polski , t.1 Najdawniejsze dzieje ziem polskich (do VII w.), Fogra, Kraków 1998.
- Janusz K. Kozłowski (opracowanie naukowe), Encyklopedia historyczna świata, t. I Prehistoria, Agencja Publicystyczno-Wydawnicza Opres, Kraków 1999.
- Bolesław Ginter, Janusz K. Kozłowski, Technika obróbki i typologia wyrobów kamiennych paleolitu, mezolitu i neolitu (wyd. III), PWN, Warszawa 1990.
- J.Desmond Clark, Prahistoria Afryki, PWN, Warszawa 1978.
The Varna culture belongs to the late Chalcolithic of northeastern Bulgaria. It is conventionally dated between 4400-4100 BC. It is contemporary and closely related with Gumelnițain southern Rumania, often considered as local variants.
It is characterized by polychrome pottery and rich cemeteries, the most famous of which are Varna Necropolis, the eponymous site, and the Durankulak complex, which comprises the largest prehistoric cemetery in southeastern Europe, with an adjoining coeval Neolithic settlement (published) and an unpublished and incompletely excavated Chalcolithicsettlement.
294 graves have been found in the necropolis, many containing sophisticated examples of copper and gold metallurgy, pottery (about 600 pieces, including gold-painted ones), high-quality flint and obsidian blades, beads, and shells. The site was accidentally discovered in October 1972 by excavator operator Raycho Marinov. Research excavation was under the direction of Mihail Lazarov and Ivan Ivanov. About 30% of the estimated necropolis area is still not excavated.
The findings showed that the Varna culture had trade relations with distant lands, possibly including the lower Volga region and the Cyclades, perhaps exporting metal goods and saltfrom the Provadiya rock salt mine. The copper ore used in the artifacts originated from a Sredna Gora mine near Stara Zagora, and Mediterranean spondylus shells found in the graves may have served as primitive currency.
Burials at Varna have some of the world’s oldest gold jewelry. There are crouched and extended inhumations. Some graves do not contain askeleton, but grave gifts (cenotaphs). Interestingly, the symbolic (empty) graves are the richest in gold artifacts. 3000 gold artifacts were found, with a weight of approximately 6 kilograms. Grave 43 contained more gold than has been found in the entire rest of the world for that epoch. Three symbolic graves contained masks of unfired clay.
The culture had sophisticated religious beliefs about afterlife and developed hierarchical status differences: it constitutes the oldest known burial evidence of an elite male. The end of the fifth millennium BC is the time that Marija Gimbutas, founder of the Kurgan hypothesis claims the transition to male dominance began in Europe. The high status male was buried with remarkable amounts of gold, held a war axe ormace and wore a gold penis sheath. The bull-shaped gold platelets perhaps also venerated virility, instinctive force, and warfare. Gimbutas holds that the artifacts were made largely by local craftspeople.
The discontinuity of the Varna, Karanovo[disambiguation needed], Vinča and Lengyel cultures in their main territories and the large scale population shifts to the north and northwest are indirect evidence of a catastrophe of such proportions that cannot be explained by possibleclimatic change, desertification, or epidemics. Direct evidence of the incursion of horse-riding warriors is found, not only in single burials of males under barrows, but in the emergence of a whole complex of Indo-European cultural traits. The original term for: ‚Castes’ in India was: ‚Varna’, meaning: ‚Color’, cognate to French: ‚Vernis’, and Spanish: ‚Barniz’ (both= Varnish).
GaR, GaRNieC, GaRNeK, Z”aR / R”aR,.. R”/Z”aRNa, R”/Z”ReC’/T’…
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Varna culture.
- Varna Archaeological Museum.
- Varna Necropolis Cultural Tourism page on the Golden Sands Resort web site.
- Another photo by Ivo Hadjimishev
- The Durankulak Lake Town – Kibela’s Temple (Древното селище при Дуранкулашкото езеро – Езерният град)
- Khenrieta Todorova, The eneolithic period in Bulgaria in the fifth millennium B.C. Oxford : British Archaeological Reports, 1978. BAR supplementary series 49.
- Henrieta Todorova, Kupferzeitliche Siedlungen in Nordostbulgarien. München: Beck 1982. Materialien zur allgemeinen und vergleichenden Archäologie 13.
The Black Sea Flood Question: Changes in Coastline, Climate and Human Settlement
Valentina Yanko-Hombach, Allan S. Gilbert, Nicolae Panin, Pavel M. Dolukhanov
Springer Science & Business Media, 15 Nov 2006 – Science – 971 pages
Stimulated by „Noah’s Flood Hypothesis” proposed by W. Ryan and W. Pitman in which a catastrophic inundation of the Pontic basin was linked to the biblical story, leading experts in Black Sea research (including oceanography, marine geology, paleoclimate, paleoenvironment, archaeology, and linguistic spread) provide overviews of their data and interpretations obtained through empirical scientific approaches. Among the contributors are many East European scientists whose work has rarely been published outside of Cyrillic. Each of the 35 papers marshals its own evidence for or against the flood hypothesis. No summary or overall resolution to the flood question is presented, but instead access is provided to a broad range of interdisciplinary information that crosses previously impenetrable language barriers so that new work in the region can proceed with the benefit of a wider frame of reference. The three fundamental scenarios describing the late glacial to Holocene rise in the level of the Black Sea—catastrophic, gradual, and oscillating—are presented in the early pages, with the succeeding papers organized by geographic sector: northern (Ukraine), western (Moldova, Romania, and Bulgaria), southern (Turkey), and eastern (Georgia and Russia), as well as three papers on the Mediterranean. The volume thus brings together eastern and western scholarship to share research findings and perspectives on a controversial subject. In addition, appendices are included containing some 600 radiocarbon dates from the Pontic region obtained by USSR and western laboratories.
History of Humanity: Prehistory and the beginnings of civilization
Sigfried J. de Laet
Taylor & Francis, 1994 – Civilization – 716 pages
All historiography is ‚work in progress’ and the study of the history of humanity has undergone considerable changes since the publication of UNESCO’s History of Mankind. After almost fifteen years of intensive work, it is UNESCO Publishing’s privilege to present an entirelyrevised and updated edition of this major work. The new edition, now called History of Humanity, is a radical new work providing an account of cultural and scientific achievements in the light of new facts and methods of historiographical investigation. This major undertaking required an International Commission and the cooperation of some 450 distinguished specialists, in a great number of disciplines, from all over the world. A truly interdisciplinary work, the History of Humanity sheds new light on many hitherto unknown features of our common past. Forty internationally renowned specialists from various countries provide a broad introduction to the study of the eve of civilization. Starting from the origins of humankind to the first societies 5,000 years ago, the events, chronologically charted, present a comprehensive picture of how civilization emerged and developed over this period. Particular attention is given to archaeological aspects.
The Oxford Handbook of Neolithic Europe
Chris Fowler, Jan Harding, Daniela Hofmann
OUP Oxford, 26 Mar 2015 – History – 1200 pages
The Neolithic – a period in which the first sedentary agrarian communities were established across much of Europe – has been a key topic of archaeological research for over a century. However, the variety of evidence across Europe and the way research traditions in different countries (and languages) have developed makes it very difficult for both students and specialists to gain an overview of continent-wide trends. The Oxford Handbook of Neolithic Europe provides the first comprehensive, geographically extensive, thematic overview of the European Neolithic – from Iberia to Russia and from Norway to Malta – offering both a general introduction and a clear exploration of key issues and current debates surrounding evidence and interpretation. Chapters written by leading experts in the field examine topics such as the movement of plants, animals, ideas, and people (including recent trends in theapplication of genetics and isotope analyses); cultural change (from the first farming to the first metal artefacts); domestic architecture; subsistence; material culture; monuments; and burial and other treatments of the dead. In doing so, the volume also considers the history of research and sets out agendasand themes for future work in the field.
Proszę zwrócić na podobieństwa w ceramice do tej z tzw. Sumeru, a dokładnie z tzw. okresu Ubajd i Halaf, np. wzór swastyki, czyli kołowrotu!!!
Ciekawe zdjęcia, ale ta strona chyba upowszechnia pogląd, że murzyni byli w Europie… a tzw. biali to murzyni, tyle że albinosi…
Are the ‘new’ AMS Varna dates older?
Pre-Dacian and Dacian Culture – Intro
Pre-Dacians and Dacians artifacts presented in chronological order
Artefactele pre-dacice si dacice sunt prezentate in ordine cronologica
Pre-Dacian and Dacian Art Intro p. 2
Pre-Dacian and Dacian Culture Intro p.3
LEPENSKI VIR i VINČA (najstarije civilizacije Evrope i Sveta, prapostojbina Srba)
Europe’s biggest prehistoric civilization: Vinča (Old Europe) 5,500–4,500 BC
The Danube Civilization , Old Europe ,Tartaria Tablets (full documentary)
Is the Danube Civilization script the oldest writing in the world?
History of the Swastika – Mezine Old Europe Vinca Cucuteni Trypillian Greece Rome Celtic Germanic
The earliest swastika ever found was uncovered in Mezine, Ukraine. It is carved on late paleolithic figurine of mammoth ivory, being dated as early as about 10,000 BC. Among the earliest cultures utilizing swastika is the Old Europe, neolithic Danube Valley Civilization, Vinca, Cucuteni-Trypillian
In Bronze Age Europe, the „Sun cross” appears most frequently of all continents, often interpreted as a solar symbol. Swastika shapes have been found on numerous artifacts from Iron Age Europe (Greco-Roman, Illyrian, Etruscan, Baltic, Celtic, Germanic, Slavic and Georgian Borjgali).This prehistoric use seems to be reflected in the appearance of the symbol in various folk cultures of Europe. The symbol has been found on vessels in the ancient city of Troy, The evidence shows that it served as a symbol of fertility and life. Its similar use can be found in Trench Graves in Mycanae, Greece, on Athenian vases and even decorating the garments of Aphrodite, the Greek goddess of love. Also the Greek Parthenon had this symbol as a Greek design just like other designs.
Swastika is a definite European sign moving east into Indus Valley Civilization. It was brought by migrating tribes to India where it is revered in the religious and cultural life of the Indo-Aryans. It did not originate in the Indus Valley Civilization as some people thought.
Tu „oficjalna fietza” dla porównania:
Historia i pochodzenie
Koło garncarskie znane było już w starożytnym Egipcie. Mitologia egipska podaje, iż pradawny bóg Górnego Egiptu Chnum, stwórca człowieka, ulepił go z gliny na kole garncarskim. Wierzenia te ukazują jak ważnym narzędziem było koło garncarskie i jakim szacunkiem darzono rzemiosło garncarskie w starożytnym Egipcie.
Na ziemie dzisiejszej Polski wynalazek koła garncarskiego przybył prawdopodobnie ok. 300 roku p.n.e. wraz z Celtami.
Many modern scholars suggest that the first potter’s wheel was first developed in Mesopotamia. A stone potter’s wheel found at the Mesopotamian city of Ur in modern-day Iraq has been dated to about 3129 BC, but fragments of wheel-thrown pottery of an even earlier date have been recovered in the same area. However, southeast Europe and China have also been claimed as possible places of origin. Furthermore, the pottery wheel was also in popular use by potters starting around 3500 BCE in major cities of the Indus Valley Civilization in South Asia, namely Harappa and Mohenjo-daro (Kenoyer, 2005). Others consider Egypt as „being the place of origin of the potter’s wheel. It was here that the turntable shaft was lengthened about 3000bc and a flywheel added. The flywheel was kicked and later was moved by pulling the edge with the left hand while forming the clay with the right. This led to the counterclockwise motion for the potter’s wheel which is almost universal.” Hence the exact origin of the potters wheel is not wholly clear yet.
Cucoș, Ștefan (1999). „Faza Cucuteni B în zona subcarpatică a Moldovei” [Cucuteni B period in the lower Carpathian region of Moldova]. Bibliotheca Memoriae antiquitatis (BMA) (Memorial Library antiquities) (in Romanian) (Piatra Neamț, Romania: Muzeul de Istorie Piatra Neamț (Historical Museum Piatra Neamț)) 6. OCLC 223302267.
The invention of the wheel falls into the late Neolithic, and may be seen in conjunction with other technological advances that gave rise to the early Bronze Age. Note that this implies the passage of several wheel-less millennia even after the invention of agriculture and of pottery:
- 9500–6500 BCE: Aceramic Neolithic
- 6500–4500 BCE: Ceramic Neolithic (Halafian), earliest wooden wheels (disks with a hole for the axle)
- c. 4500 BCE: invention of the potter’s wheel, beginning of the Chalcolithic (Ubaid period)
- 4500–3300 BCE: Chalcolithic, earliest wheeled vehicles, domestication of the horse
- 3300–2200 BCE: Early Bronze Age
- 2200–1550 BCE: Middle Bronze Age, invention of the spoked wheel and the chariot
The first evidence of wheeled vehicles appears in the second half of the 4th millennium BCE, near-simultaneously in Mesopotamia (Sumerian civilization), the Northern Caucasus (Maykop culture) and Central Europe, so the question of which culture originally invented the wheeled vehicle is still unsolved.
The earliest well-dated depiction of a wheeled vehicle (here a wagon — four wheels, two axles) is on the Bronocice pot, a c. 3500 – 3350 BCE clay pot excavated in a Funnelbeaker culture settlement in southern Poland.
The oldest securely dated real wheel-axle combination, that from Stare Gmajne near Ljubljana in Slovenia (Ljubljana Marshes Wooden Wheel) is now dated in 2σ-limits to 3340-3030 BCE, the axle to 3360-3045 BCE.
Two types of early Neolithic European wheel and axle are known; a circum Alpine type of wagon construction (the wheel and axle rotate together, as in Ljubljana Marshes Wheel), and that of the Baden culture in Hungary (axle does not rotate). They both are dated to c. 3200-3000 BCE.
„6500–4500 BCE: Ceramic Neolithic (Halafian), earliest wooden wheels (disks with a hole for the axle)”
NIEPRAWDA!!! Najstarsze znalezione koło pochodzi z Europy i jest datowane na około 32.000 lat!!!
Sungir (sometimes erroneously spelled Sunghir) is an Upper Paleolithic archaeological site in Russia and one of the earliest records of modern Homo sapiens in Europe. It is situated about two hundred kilometres east of Moscow, on the outskirts of Vladimir, near the Klyazma River. It is dated by calibrated carbon analysis to between 32,050 and 28,550 BC. Additional pollen finds suggest the relative warme spell of the „Greenland interstadial (GI) 5”  between the 305th and 301st centennia BCE as most probable dates.
Ivory wheel from Sungir, possibly originally mounted on a spear. It may have had feathers or other decorations attached using the beautifully carved holes in the disk.
Lokalizacja kultury Halaf
Kultura Halaf – chalkolityczna kultura archeologiczna, zlokalizowana w północnej Mezopotamii. Nazwa pochodzi od eponimicznegostanowiska Tell Halaf, gdzie po raz pierwszy zostały odkryte relikty charakterystyczne dla danej kultury. Jej trwanie przypada na okres od końca VI tysiąclecia p.n.e. do końca V tysiąclecia p.n.e.
Kultura Halaf rozwinęła się w północnej Mezopotamii nad Chaburem, prawym dopływem Eufratu i objęła swoim zasięgiem obszary bogate w obsydian i miedź, zakreślone od zachodu syryjskim wybrzeżem Morza Śródziemnego, od północy sięgała Gerikihacijan w południowo-wschodniej Anatolii i Tilki Tepe nad jeziorem Wan, od południowego wschodu terenów w pobliżu Mosulu.
W 1899 roku Max von Oppenheim uzyskał od mieszkańców Tell Halaf informację, że pod piaskiem na pobliskim wzgórzu znajdują się ruiny starożytnego osiedla. Prace archeologiczne Oppenheim rozpoczął w 1911 roku. Wykopaliska przerwała pierwsza wojna światowa, badania Oppenheima zostały sfinalizowane dopiero w latach 1927–1929. W 1943 roku archeolog opublikował wyniki swoich odkryć. Zostały one później wzbogacone dzięki publikacjom Maxa Mallowana, który pracował przy wykopaliskach w Tell Arpaczija i udowodnił, że to stanowisko archeologiczne stanowiło pierwotne centrum kultury Halaf.
Ludność kultury Halaf zamieszkiwała przeważnie duże umocnione osady. Pomieszczenia mieszkalne budowano z suszonej cegły na planie prostokątnym, choć na wschodnich obszarach spotykane są domostwa na planie koła. Jedno z odkrytych pomieszczeń mieszkalnych posiadało przedsionek, który przeznaczony był na warsztat garncarski. Znaleziono w nim piec i wyroby ceramiczne. Obok warsztatu usytuowane było miejsce kultu. Wewnątrz znajdował się posążek Bogini Matki, przed którą znaleziono figurkę klęczącego mężczyzny oraz misę z darami wotywnymi. Na podstawie zaobserwowanego zwyczaju umieszczania przez późniejszych władców Mezopotamii własnych podobizn przed posągami bóstw przypuszcza się, że klęcząca figurka uosabiała uprzywilejowanego sługę bogini.
Ceramika najstarszych warstw kultury Halaf tworzona była bez użycia koła garncarskiego, ale była wypalana w zamykanych piecach, w których możliwa była regulacja temperatury, i zdobiona charakterystycznymi geometrycznymi lub w kształcie zwierząt, ludzi i ptaków ornamentami w barwach czarnych bądź czerwono-pomarańczowych. Ceramika odkryta w młodszych warstwach wykonywana była na kole garncarskim.
Ludność kultury Halaf korzystała zarówno z narzędzi kamiennych, jak i miedzianych, znany był ołów i wóz kołowy, ciągnięty przez woły lub osły. Odnaleziono także wiele wisiorków kamiennych, które najprawdopodobniej wykorzystywano jako pieczęcie. Taki wniosek nasunął się po zbadaniu bryłek gliny z odciskami wisiorków i sznurków, którymi wiązano wory i kosze. Znalezisko ponadto stanowiło dowód na pojawienie się własności prywatnej.
- M. Bielicki, Zapomniany świat Sumerów, s. 45–46.
- J. Zabłocka, Historia Bliskiego Wschodu w starożytności (od początku osadnictwa do podboju perskiego), s. 31.
- J. Zabłocka, Historia Bliskiego Wschodu w starożytności (od początku osadnictwa do podboju perskiego), s. 30.
- J. Zabłocka, Historia Bliskiego Wschodu w starożytności (od początku osadnictwa do podboju perskiego), s. 31–32.
- M. Bielicki, Zapomniany świat Sumerów, s. 46.
- J. Zabłocka, Historia Bliskiego Wschodu w starożytności (od początku osadnictwa do podboju perskiego), s. 32–33.
- Bielicki M., Zapomniany świat Sumerów, Warszawa 1966.
- Zabłocka J., Historia Bliskiego Wschodu w starożytności (od początku osadnictwa do podboju perskiego), Wrocław 1982. ISBN 83-04-00710-X.
|Period||Neolithic 3 – Pottery Neolithic (PN)|
|Dates||circa 6,100 B.C.E. — circa5,100 B.C.E.|
|Type site||Tell Halaf|
|Major sites||Tell Brak|
|Preceded by||Pre-Pottery Neolithic B|
|Followed by||Halaf-Ubaid Transitional period, Hassuna culture,Samarra culture|
The Halaf culture is a prehistoric period which lasted between about 6100 and 5100 BCE. The period is a continuous development out of the earlier Pottery Neolithic and is located primarily in south-eastern Turkey, Syria, and northern Iraq, although Halaf-influenced material is found throughout Greater Mesopotamia.
While the period is named after the site of Tell Halaf in north Syria, excavated by Max von Oppenheim between 1911 and 1927, the earliest Halaf period material was excavated by John Garstang in 1908 at the site of Sakce Gözü, then in Syria but now part of Turkey. Small amounts of Halaf material were also excavated in 1913 by Leonard Woolley at Carchemish, on the Turkish/Syrian border. However, the most important site for the Halaf tradition was the site of Tell Arpachiyah, now located in the suburbs of Mosul,Iraq.
Map of Iraq showing important sites that were occupied during the Halaf culture (clickable map)
Previously, the Syrian plains were not considered as the homeland of Halaf culture, and the Halafians were seen either as hill people who descended from the nearby mountains of southeastern Anatolia, or herdsmen from northern Iraq. However, those views changed with the recent archaeology conducted since 1986 by Peter Akkermans, which have produced new insights and perspectives about the rise of Halaf culture. A formerly unknown transitional culture between the pre-Half Neolithic‚s era and Halaf’s era was uncovered in the Balikh valley, at Tell Sabi Abyad (the Mound of the White Boy).
Currently, eleven occupational layers have been unearthed in Sabi Abyad. Levels from 11 to 7 are considered pre-Halaf; from 6 to 4, transitional; and from 3 to 1, early Halaf. No hiatus in occupation is observed except between levels 11 and 10. The new archaeology demonstrated that Halaf culture was not sudden and was not the result of foreign people, but rather a continuous process of indigenous cultural changes in northern Syria, that spread to the other regions.
Tel Halaf terracotta fertility figurine, 5000-4000 BC. Walters Museum
Although no Halaf settlement has been extensively excavated some buildings have been excavated: the tholoi of Tell Arpachiyah, circular domed structures approached through long rectangular anterooms. Only a few of these structures were ever excavated. They were constructed of mud-brick sometimes on stone foundations and may have been for ritual use (one contained a large number of female figurines). Other circular buildings were probably just houses.
The best known, most characteristic pottery of Tell Halaf, called Halaf ware, produced by specialist potters, can be painted, sometimes using more than two colors (called polychrome) with geometric and animal motifs. Other types of Halaf pottery are known, including unpainted, cooking ware and ware with burnished surfaces. There are many theories about why the distinctive pottery style developed.
The theory is that the pottery came about due to regional copying and that it was exchanged as a prestige item between local elites is now disputed. The polychrome painted Halaf pottery has been proposed to be a „trade pottery”—pottery produced for export—however, the predominance of locally produced painted pottery in all areas of Halaf sites including potters settlement questions that theory.
Halaf pottery has been found in other parts of northern Mesopotamia, such as at Nineveh and Tepe Gawra, Chagar Bazar and at many sites in Anatolia (Turkey) suggesting that it was widely used in the region. In addition, the Halaf communities made female figurines of partially baked clay and stone and stamp seals of stone, (see also Impression seal). The seals are thought to mark the development of concepts of personal property, as similar seals were used for this purpose in later times. The Halaf people used tools made of stone and clay. Copper was also known, but was not used for tools.
Dryland farming was practiced by the population. This type of farming was based on exploiting natural rainfall without the help of irrigation, in a similar practice to that still practiced today by the Hopi people of Arizona. Emmer wheat, two-rowed barley and flax were grown. They kept cattle, sheep and goats.
Halaf’s end (Northern Ubaid)
Halaf culture ended by 5000 BC after entering the so called Halaf-Ubaid Transitional period. Many Halafians settlements were abandoned, and the remaining ones showed Ubaidian characters. The new period is named Northern Ubaid to distinguish it from the proper Ubaid in southern Mesopotamia, and two explanations were presented for the transformation. The first maintain an invasion and a replacement of the Halafians by the Ubaidians, however, there is no hiatus between the Halaf and northern Ubaid which exclude the invasion theory. The most plausible theory is a Halafian adoption of the Ubaid culture, which is supported by most scholars including Oates, Breniquet and Akkermans.
- Mario Liverani (2013). The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. p. 48.
- Castro Gessner, G. 2011. „A Brief Overview of the Halaf Tradition” in Steadman, S and McMahon, G (eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Ancient anatolia. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 780
- Castro Gessner, G. 2011. „A Brief Overview of the Halaf Tradition” in Steadman, S and McMahon, G (eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Ancient anatolia. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 781
- Campbell, S. 2000. „The Burnt House at Arpachiyah: A Reexamination” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research no. 318. pp. 1
- Maria Grazia Masetti-Rouault, Olivier Rouault, M. Wafler (2000). La Djéziré et l’Euphrate syriens de la protohistoire à la fin du second millénaire av. J.C, Tendances dans l’interprétation historique des données nouvelles, (Subartu) – Chapter : Old and New Perspectives on the Origins of the Halaf Culture by Peter Akkermans. pp. 43–44.
- Peter M. M. G. Akkermans, Glenn M. Schwartz (2003). The Archaeology of Syria: From Complex Hunter-Gatherers to Early Urban Societies (c.16,000-300 BC). p. 101.
- Peter M. M. G. Akkermans, Glenn M. Schwartz (2003). The Archaeology of Syria: From Complex Hunter-Gatherers to Early Urban Societies (c.16,000-300 BC). p. 116.
- John L. Brooke (2014). Climate Change and the Course of Global History: A Rough Journey. p. 204.
- Georges Roux (1992). Ancient Iraq. p. 101.
- Susan Pollock,Reinhard Bernbeck (2009). Archaeologies of the Middle East: Critical Perspectives. p. 190.
- Peter M. M. G. Akkermans, Glenn M. Schwartz (2003). The Archaeology of Syria: From Complex Hunter-Gatherers to Early Urban Societies (c.16,000-300 BC). p. 157.
- Robert J. Speakman,Hector Neff (2005). Laser Ablation ICP-MS in Archaeological Research. p. 128.
- Akkermans, Peter M. M. G.; Schwartz, Glenn M. (2003). The Archaeology of Syria: From Complex Hunter-Gatherers to Early Urban Societies (c.16,000-300 BC). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-52179-666-8.
- Liverani, Mario (2013). The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-75091-7.
- Masetti-Rouault, Maria Grazia; Rouault, Olivier; Wafler, Markus (2000). La Djéziré et l’Euphrate syriens de la protohistoire à la fin du second millénaire av. J.C, Tendances dans l’interprétation historique des données nouvelles, (Subartu). Brepols. ISBN 978-2-50351-063-7.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Halaf culture.|
Sumer (/ˈsuːmər/)[note 1] was the first ancient urban civilization in the historical region of southern Mesopotamia, modern-day southernIraq, during the Chalcolithic and Early Bronze ages, and arguably the first civilization in the world.
Modern historians have suggested that Sumer was first permanently settled between c. 5500 and 4000 BC by a pre-Semitic people who spoke the linguistically isolated Sumerian language (pointing to the names of cities, rivers, basic occupations, etc., as evidence).
These conjectured, prehistoric people are now called „proto-Euphrateans” or „Ubaidians„, and are theorized to have evolved from the Samarra culture of northern Mesopotamia (Assyria). The Ubaidians (though never mentioned by the Sumerians themselves) are assumed by modern-day scholars to have been the first civilizing force in Sumer, draining the marshes for agriculture, developing trade, and establishing industries, including weaving, leatherwork, metalwork, masonry, and pottery.
However, some scholars contest the idea of a Proto-Euphratean language or one substrate language. It has been suggested by them and others, that the Sumerian language was originally that of the hunter and fisher peoples, who lived in the marshland and the Eastern Arabia littoral region, and were part of the Arabian bifacial culture. Reliable historical records begin much later; there are none in Sumer of any kind that have been dated before Enmebaragesi (c. 26th century BC). Professor Juris Zarins believes the Sumerians were settled along the coast of Eastern Arabia, today’s Persian Gulf region, before it flooded at the end of the Ice Age.
Sumerian civilization took form in the Uruk period (4th millennium BC), continuing into the Jemdat Nasr and Early Dynastic periods. During the 3rd millennium BC, a close cultural symbiosis developed between the Sumerians (who spoke a language no relatives of which are known today; see language isolate) and the Semitic Akkadian speakers, which included widespread bilingualism.Sumerian culture seems to have appeared as a fully formed civilization, with no pre-history.
The influence of Sumerian on Akkadian (and vice versa) is evident in all areas, from lexical borrowing on a massive scale, to syntactic,morphological, and phonological convergence. This has prompted scholars to refer to Sumerian and Akkadian in the 3rd millennium BC as a Sprachbund. Sumer was conquered by the Semitic-speaking kings of the Akkadian Empire around 2270 BC (short chronology), but Sumerian continued as a sacred language.
Native Sumerian rule re-emerged for about a century in the Neo-Sumerian Empire or Third Dynasty of Ur (Sumerian Renaissance) approximately 2100-2000 BC, but the Akkadian language also remained in use. The Sumerian city of Eridu, on the coast of the Persian Gulf, is considered to have been the world’s first city, where three separate cultures may have fused — that of peasant Ubaidian farmers, living in mud-brick huts and practicing irrigation; that of mobile nomadic Semitic pastoralists living in black tents and following herds of sheep and goats; and that of fisher folk, living in reed huts in the marshlands, who may have been the ancestors of the Sumerians.
Origin of name
The term „Sumerian” is the common name given to the ancient non-Semitic inhabitants of Mesopotamia, Sumer, by the Semitic Akkadians. The Sumerians referred to themselves asùĝ saĝ gíg-ga (cuneiform: 𒌦 𒊕 𒈪 𒂵), phonetically uŋ saŋ giga, literally meaning „the black-headed people”, and to their land as ki-en-gi(-r) (‚place’ + ‚lords’ + ‚noble’), meaning „place of the noble lords”. The Akkadian word Shumer may represent the geographical name in dialect, but the phonological development leading to the Akkadian term šumerû is uncertain. Hebrew Shinar, Egyptian Sngr, and Hittite Šanhar(a), all referring to southern Mesopotamia, could be western variants of Shumer.
The Sumerian city-states rose to power during the prehistoric Ubaid and Uruk periods. Sumerian written history reaches back to the 27th century BC and before, but the historical record remains obscure until the Early Dynastic III period, c. the 23rd century BC, when a now deciphered syllabary writing system was developed, which has allowed archaeologists to read contemporary records and inscriptions. Classical Sumer ends with the rise of the Akkadian Empire in the 23rd century BC. Following the Gutian period, there is a brief Sumerian Renaissance in the 21st century BC, cut short in the 20th century BC by Semitic Amorite invasions. The Amorite „dynasty of Isin” persisted until c. 1700 BC, when Mesopotamia was united under Babylonian rule. The Sumerians were eventually absorbed into the Akkadian (Assyro-Babylonian) population.
- Ubaid period: 5300 – 4100 BC (Pottery Neolithic to Chalcolithic)
- Uruk period: 4100 – 2900 BC (Late Chalcolithic to Early Bronze Age I)
- Uruk XIV-V: 4100 – 3300 BC
- Uruk IV period: 3300 – 3100 BC
- Jemdet Nasr period (Uruk III): 3100 – 2900 BC
- Early Dynastic period (Early Bronze Age II-IV)
- Early Dynastic I period: 2900–2800 BC
- Early Dynastic II period: 2800–2600 BC (Gilgamesh)
- Early Dynastic IIIa period: 2600–2500 BC
- Early Dynastic IIIb period: c. 2500–2334 BC
- Akkadian Empire period: c. 2334–2218 BC (Sargon)
- Gutian period: c. 2218–2047 BC (Early Bronze Age IV)
- Ur III period: c. 2047–1940 BC
The Ubaid period is marked by a distinctive style of fine quality painted pottery which spread throughout Mesopotamia and the Persian Gulf. During this time, the first settlement in southern Mesopotamia was established at Eridu (Cuneiform: NUN.KI), c. 5300 BC, by farmers who brought with them the Hadji Muhammed culture, which first pioneered irrigation agriculture. It appears that this culture was derived from theSamarran culture from northern Mesopotamia. It is not known whether or not these were the actual Sumerians who are identified with the later Uruk culture. Eridu remained an important religious center when it was gradually surpassed in size by the nearby city of Uruk. The story of the passing of the me (gifts of civilization) to Inanna, goddess of Uruk and of love and war, by Enki, god of wisdom and chief god of Eridu, may reflect this shift in hegemony.
World’s Earliest Civilization Documentary on the World’s First Civilizations in Iraq
12 minuta filmu – eDeN – eDiN – jeDeN?
Bronze Age Transformations of the Mediterranean World: A Perspective from the Countryside
http://www.latrobe.edu.au/ Professor Steve Falconer studies the rise and collapse of urbanized societies in the Eastern Mediterranean and Near East, turning particular attention to the interactions of small agrarian villages with their larger social, political and natural environments. He utilizes settlement pattern, ceramic, faunal and metallurgical data to characterize rural life during the periodic development and abandonment of the region’s earliest polities and their regional economies. Professor Falconer has directed excavations at a series of Bronze Age farming and herding settlements in in Jordon and currently co-directs excavations on the island of Cyprus. Before joining La Trobe University in 2012, Steve was Professor of Archaeology at Arizona State University.
Na koniec jedno pytanie:
Kto wie, coś skąd ci tzw. Sumerowie kupowali metale… no bo wygląda że swoich kopalni to raczej nie mieli?